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Flashcards in Basic Principles Deck (61)
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1

At what stage in pregnancy is a goitre seen

Perinatal period

2

Many endocrine disorders are associated with defects in what

GPCRs

3

What do GPCRs act as

Biological sensors

4

What is a good example of intrinsic tyrosine kinase activity

Insulin receptor

5

What are 2 examples of cytokine receptors

Prolactin receptor and growth hormone

6

What are cytokine receptors linked to

Tyrosine kinase activity

7

Steroid hormones are typically intracellular or extracellular

Intracellular

8

Where exactly are steroid hormone receptors located

either in the cytoplasm or the nucleus

9

What are included in the nuclear receptor family

Oestrogen, androgen receptos

10

What do steroid/receptor complexes do ?

Bind DNA response elements

11

When do receptors translocate to the nucleus

Only when a hormone or a ligand is present

12

Give an example of a steroid hormone receptor and what it does

Testosterone
It causes alterations in gene transcriptions with interactions with DNA

13

What can a circulating corticosteroid that is bound to by either a hormone or a ligand cause

Transactivation or transrepression

14

What is the master regulator of hormones

Pituitary gland

15

At what sites can the pathways be disrupted

Hypothalamus
Pituitary gland
Peripheral glands e.g. thyroid, adrenal, cortex or gonad

16

What does a disruption in a pathway result in

Endocrine problems

17

Where is the site of central regulation from the hypothalamus

Anterior pituitary gland

18

What are the 5 hormones secreted by the anterior pituitary gland

Growth hormone
LH/ FSH
Adrenocorticotropic hormone
Thyroid stimulating hormone
Prolactin (PRL)

19

What is secreted by the posterior pituitary gland

ADH or vasopressin

20

What factors affect the ability to accurately measure hormone levels

Pattern of secretion
The presence of carrier proteins
Interfering agents
Stability of hormone (consider 1/2 life)
Absolute concentrations

21

What is a major determinant of hormone concentration?

Rate of secretion

22

Measuring hormones is typically determined by highly refined by what

Feedback loops - ie. need to know the right time to measure the right hormone levels (circadian rhythm)

23

What types of hormones are commonly evaluated

Thyroid hormones
Steroid hormone production (e.g. cortisol)
Growth hormone evaluation
Reproductive and sex hormone (e.g. testosterone)
Prolactin
Calcium and parathyroid homrone

24

Why might reproductive hormones be evaluated

Infertility
Puberty
Loss of libido
Erectile dysfunction

25

What is the function of renin and aldosterone and what gland are the associated with

Adrenal gland
They regulate salt and water balance

26

When might TSH not be a reliable marker of Thyroid status

If the patient had a primary hypothalamic pituitary problem e.g. a tumour and was therefore unable to secrete TSH

27

What does the thyroid axis rely on

highly regulated feedback control

28

What does the patient have if they have a raised TSH

Hypothyroid

29

What does the patient have if they have a suppressed TSH

Hyperthyroid

30

What hormone has the strongest circadian rhythm in humans

Cortisol