Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Flashcards Preview

SM Endocrine > Differentiated Thyroid Cancer > Flashcards

Flashcards in Differentiated Thyroid Cancer Deck (31):
1

What does differentiated thyroid cancer ever to

Papillary and follicular variants with regards to histological and physiological appearances

2

What do most differentiated thyroid cancers do

Take up iodine and secrete thyroglobulin

3

What drives differentiated thyroid cancer

TSH

4

What does differentiated mean for the patients sake

Good prognosis compared to other solid tumours

5

What does differentiated mean for the clinicians view

The cancerous cells look very similar to normal thyroid cancer cells

6

Describe the incidence and prevalence of differentiated thyroid cancer in women

Rates increase from 15-40 years then plateau

7

Describe the incidence and prevalence of differentiated thyroid cancer in men

Steady increase with age

8

What group of patients have a lower incidence of differentiated thyroid cancer

Afro-americans

9

What does differentiated thyroid cancer have a strong association with

Exposure to radiation

10

Diet, other malignancies, family history and smoking can all have an association with the risk of developing differentiated thyroid cancer. True or False

False

11

What do most patients present with

Palpable nodules in the neck

12

What is the most common histological type of thyroid cancer

Papillary

13

How does papillary thyroid cancer tend to spread

Via lymphatics

14

What is the 10 year survival of papillary thyroid cancer

97%

15

What is the second most common histological type of thyroid carcinoma

Follicular carcinoma

16

Where is there a slightly higher incidence of follicular carcinoma

In regions of relative iodine fediciency

17

How does follicular carcinoma tend to spread

Haematogenously

18

What is the usual investigation for thyroid cancer

Ultrasound guided Fine needle aspiration of the lesion

19

What are some clinical predictors of malignancy

New thyroid nodule in patients under 20 or over 50
Males
Increasing size
>4cm lesion
History of head and neck irradiation
Vocal cord palsy

20

What is the treatment of choice for differentiated thyroid cancer

Surgery

21

What are the surgical options for thyroid cancer

Thyroid lobectomy
Sub-ttoal thyroiectomy
Total thyroidectomy

22

What is the best surgical option for thyroid cancer

Sub-total thyroidectomy

23

What patients are AMES high risk

Those with distant metastases

24

What are the post-operative management plans for thyroid cancer patients

Calcium replacement if required
Patient discharged on T3 and T4

25

When is IV calcium required

When the levels fall below 1.8

26

When is whole body iodine scanning used

In patients who have undergone subtotal or total thyroidectomy but who have metastatic thyroid cancer

27

how is the sensitivity of a whole body iodine scan determined

By ensuring that TSH is elevated

28

Where is iodine naturally taken up in the body

Salivary glands, the stomach and the bladder (secretion via kidneys)

29

When is a patient safe to be discharged after thyroid remnant ablation

When the count rate is less than 500cps at 1m

30

Are patients who are having thyroid remnant ablation allowed patients. Explain

Yes - they must sit diagonally and not be there for too long for their own health

31

What is a long term effects of TRA

small but significant increase in incidence of AML