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Flashcards in Basic Science Deck (67):
1

Changes associated with aging cartilage

Less chondrocytes, large chondrocytes
less water
less proteoglycan
less chondroitin sulphate
more keratin sulphate
increased elasticity

2

Changes associated with OA in cartilage

Increased water
increased collagen, becomes disorganzied
increased proteoglycan turnover, decreased amount
decreased elasticity
increased lytic enzymes

3

Types of lubrication: elastohydrodynamic

deformation of cartilage with thin lining
principle mode of lubrication

4

types of lubrication: Boundry

nondeformable surface with only partial separation

5

types of lubrication: Boosted

lubrication pools
higher coefficient of friction

6

hydrodynamic lubrication

fluid separation

7

Weeping

fluids shifts toward load baring surfaces

8

Collagen 1

bone
skin
tendon
anulus
meniscus

9

Collagen 2

articular cartilage
nucleus pulposus

10

Collagen 3

Skin
Blood vessels

11

Collagen 4

Basement memebrane

12

What is titanium biologically inert

forms a stable oxide coating

13

Protein responsible for chemo resistance

P-gylcoprotein

14

Bacterostastic agent used in ortho

clindamycin

15

How to determine the number of aneuploid cell in a malignant tumor

flow cytometry

16

Number one contributor to backside volumetric wear

motion

17

Function of carbonic anhydrase

resorb bone at the ruffled border

18

structure of proteoglycans

multiple glycosaminoglycans bound to core protein, bound to hyaluronate via link protein

19

Greatest proportion of mechanoreceptors in the meniscus

posterior horn

20

Affect of scurvey on bone

decreased chondroitin sulphate
loss of type I collagen
deficient metaphysis
wide growth plate junction (white line of frankyl)
weak metaphyseal bone with spurs
ringed epiphysies

21

anisotropic material

different strain when loading different directions

22

cephalosporin action

inhibit cell wall synthesis

23

Quinolone action

inhibit DNA gyrase
(cipro)

24

Aminoglycan action

inhibit protein synthesis

25

Rifampin action

inhibits RNA synthesis

26

viscoelastic material

different rates of loading

27

strength of early physis growth

node of ranvier

28

greatest tensile strength applied with bending force

periosteal membrane

29

Function of nitrogen containing bisphosphonates

bind to HA to prevent protein prenylation
(aldendronate, risendronate)

30

Function of non-nitrogen containing bisphophonates

replace the terminal phosphate of ATP leading to apoptosis of the osteoclast

31

Most important hormone for peak bone mass

estrogen

32

Elastic properties of ligaments

toe region - high deformation, low force
Linear region - slippage of the collagen can occur
Failure region

33

PTH signalling molecule

adenylate cyclase

34

apportionment

degree of disability that several injuries will cause

35

Which layer of the hypertrophic zone is most suseptible to injury

zone of provisional calcification

36

most common reason for liability

OA

37

which chemical is used to activate PRP prior to centrifugation

calcium chloride

38

yeild strength

when a substance undergoes plastic deformation

39

sclerotome of the somites forms

axial skeleton

40

SOX-9 is the master switch of what lineage

chondrocytes

41

Rituximab targets which interluekin

CD20

42

which molecule released during surgery promotes DVT

thromboplastin

43

RF targets

IgG

44

virchows triad

endothelial injury
venous stasis
hypercoagulability

45

what gives cartilage it's strength

high water content
incompressability of water
structural organization of proteoglycan and water

46

proteoglycan with hydrophilic behaviour

aggrecan

47

superficial cartilage

parallel collagen
sparse proteoglycans
cartliage cell precursors

48

intermediate cartilage

random collagen
abundant proteoglycans

49

deep cartilage

perpedicular collagen
most amount of proteoglycans

50

initiator of PMMA

Benzoyl peroxide

51

Bisophosphonate reduction of vertebral fracture

60% in one year
40% in the next 3 years

52

cbaf1/runx2

osteoblast differentiation

53

component of bone most responsible for compressive strength

proteoglycans

54

component of bone most responsible for tensile strength

collagen

55

Ca and Vit D recommendations

Age 1-3yrs - 500mg/d
Age 4-8yrs - 800mg/d
Age 9-18yrs - 1000 to 1500mg/d
Age >50 yrs- 1200 to 1500 mg/d calcium
800-1,000 IUs Vit. D

56

finite element analysis

breaking up a complex geometric form to understand it better

57

mechanisms of anticoagulants

warfarin - vit K, needed for gamma-carboxylation
Heparin - antithrombin
Fondaparineu - indirect Xa
rivaroxiban - direct Xa
dabigatron - direct thrombin

58

Function of transexamic acid

inhibit bleeding
activates plasminogen with competative binding to lysine site

59

effect size

magnitude of difference between control and experiement group

60

t2, 13

rhabomyosarcoma

61

X, 18

synovial sarcoma

62

11, 22

ewings

63

12, 16

mxyoid liposarcoma

64

9, 22

chondrosarcoma

65

epigenetics

changes in heritable characteristics that do not invovle DNA mutation

66

transgenes

artifically introduced

67

how do osteocytes communicate

canniculi