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Flashcards in Basic science of psychosis Deck (24)
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1

What is Paranoid delusion?

A false fixed fear of being harmed or persecuted by a particular person or group of people.

2

What are ideas of reference?

An individual experiencing innocuous or coincidental events and believing that they have strong personal relevance.

3

What is thought insertion?

A delusion in which an individual believes that thoughts are being placed in their head by an outsider

4

What is thought broadcasting?

The belief that others can hear or are aware of an individuals thoughts.

5

Is schizophrenia genetic?

Yes- The lifetime risk of monozygotic twins is 45%

6

What is the appearance of a brain with poor prognosis?

Reduced frontal lobe volume

Reduced frontal lobe grey matter

Enlarged lateral ventricle volume

7

Grey matter abnormalities in schizophrenia:

Present early in illness and likely pre morbid (Are there before disease)

Loss due to reduced arborisation and not neurone loss

Progressive in initial years of illness

8

How is white matter investigated?

Diffusion tensor imagine (DTI)

9

What do high numbers in fractional anisotropy show?

Healthy white matter tracts

10

What do high numbers in mean diffusivity mean

Less healthy white matter tracts

11

Distribution of White matter deficits in schizophrenia

Frontotemporal

Periventricular

12

What effect do drugs that release dopamine (Eg amphetamine) have?

They cause a psychotic state

13

What class of drug is used to treat symptoms of schizophrenia?

Dopamine receptor antagonists

14

Subcortical dopamine hyperactivity leads to...

Psychosis

15

Mesocortical dopamine hypoactivity leads to...

Negative and cognitive symptoms

16

Which gene alterations are invovled in schizophrenia?

Neuregulin

Dysbindin

DISC-1

17

Examples of typical antipsychotics?

Chlorpromazine
Haloperidol
Thioridazine
Fluphenazine

18

Examples of atypical antipsychotics?

Olanzapine
Risperidone
Clozapine

19

Atypicals compared to typicals?

Less likely to get extra pyramidal side effects

High 5 HT to D2 ratio

Better efficacy against -ve symptoms

Effective in patients unresponsive to typical drugs

20

What is akathisia?

Restlessness, particularly in the legs

21

Side effects of 5HT-2 blockade?

Metabolic syndrome

22

Histamine blockade side effects?

Sedation

Increased appetite

23

Alpha blocker side effects?

Increased BP and HR.

24

Side effects of Clozapine?

Agranulocytosis
Cardiac toxicity