Basics Flashcards Preview

Intern Knowledge > Basics > Flashcards

Flashcards in Basics Deck (10):

What are the 3 volume statuses of patients?

Hypovolaemic, Euvolaemic, Hypervolaemic


How do we test fluid status?

Quick look - patient looks - well, unwell, sick, critical
Rapid fluid status - Skin, Mental Status, Urine
Vital signs
Physical examination
Chart - Fluid balance, weight


What are the signs of adequate vs decreased perfusion in skin, mental status, urine?

Skin: Warm/pink vs cool, mottled, clammy
Mental status: Alert/orientated vs confused/agitated/delirius
Urine: >0.5ml/kg/h vs <0.5mL/kg/h


What are the important vital signs in volume depleted patients

Heart rate, BP, RR


What do we look for in BP in volume patients?

Changes in postural BP, >15 of SBP signifies postural hypotension


What are the main examinations we look for?

HEENT: Oral mucous membranes, saliva
Resp: Crackles
CVS: JVP, S3 gallop
GIT: Pulsatile liver, volume overload
Skin: Skin turgor


What is the goal of fluid replacement therapy?

Replenish intravascular space to maintain preload (cardiac) ensures adquate end-organ perfusion and oxygenation


What are the principles of selecting types of fluids?

Isotonic - minimize fluid shifts
Cause, Aims, Rate/volume, Personal preferences


What are the main plasma solutes?

Glucose, Sodium, ALbumin


What are the differences between plasma solutes?

Glucose: widely both in intra/extra
Sodium: extrac
Albumin: Intravascular