Flashcards in Basics Deck (10):
What are the 3 volume statuses of patients?
Hypovolaemic, Euvolaemic, Hypervolaemic
How do we test fluid status?
Quick look - patient looks - well, unwell, sick, critical
Rapid fluid status - Skin, Mental Status, Urine
Chart - Fluid balance, weight
What are the signs of adequate vs decreased perfusion in skin, mental status, urine?
Skin: Warm/pink vs cool, mottled, clammy
Mental status: Alert/orientated vs confused/agitated/delirius
Urine: >0.5ml/kg/h vs <0.5mL/kg/h
What are the important vital signs in volume depleted patients
Heart rate, BP, RR
What do we look for in BP in volume patients?
Changes in postural BP, >15 of SBP signifies postural hypotension
What are the main examinations we look for?
HEENT: Oral mucous membranes, saliva
CVS: JVP, S3 gallop
GIT: Pulsatile liver, volume overload
Skin: Skin turgor
What is the goal of fluid replacement therapy?
Replenish intravascular space to maintain preload (cardiac) ensures adquate end-organ perfusion and oxygenation
What are the principles of selecting types of fluids?
Isotonic - minimize fluid shifts
Cause, Aims, Rate/volume, Personal preferences
What are the main plasma solutes?
Glucose, Sodium, ALbumin