Basics of Female Repro Tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Basics of Female Repro Tract Deck (45):
1

indications for ovariectomy

tumor - GTC
prevent estrus
ovarian abscess/hematoma
repro manipulation

2

What are some considerations for pre-ovariectomy surgery?

temperament
size
uni/bilateral?
equipment

3

what is involved in the colpotomy

vag incision forward in cervix over to the ovaries.

Best to give topical anesthetic
then the chain ecraseur to cut out.

Don't suture vaginal wall closed

give NSAIDs, AM, and keep standing for 4-5 days.

4

Approaches to the ovariectomy

Flank approach - standing or lateral.
Ventral approach - midline or paramedian (people do the lateral but there have been lots of complications)

5

What is involved in the modified grid?

incision through the skin
blunt dissect the muscle bellies along their axis
make the incision size a little bigger though

6

the paramedian of ventral ovariectomy approach is better if...

massive ovary to deflate and then pull out. or just need for the size to get out.

7

What is a common mistake with the lateral flank approach?

we will automatically make the incision lower down on the flank because of the position

8

complications of ovariectomy

hemorrhage
evisceration
peritonitis
CV derangements
wound (flank) dehiscence
myopathy/neuropathy from GA

9

Contra-indication to C-sections

if they aren't ready to be born yet duh!

10

Reasons for hysterotomy (C-section)

ELective
-small pelvic canal
-vaginal mass
-reucurring cervical laceration
Emergency - dystocia
-full-term uterine torsion

11

what to consider before doing hysterotomy (C-section)

fetal maturity
induce only after 1st stage of labor
have personel to deal with the foal

12

What is important for the life of the mare when doing a hysterotomy (C-section)

that nothing from the uterus gets into the abdomen!!

13

For the surgical procedure of hysterotomy (C-section), how do you go about closing?

it will bleed like crazy
stop the bleeding with the roundy-roundy-on each side of the incised uterus
then once stopped, peel some placenta away to let it pass on it's own
close with a double inverting
finish up

14

hysterotomy (C-section) complications

colic
hemorrhage
retained placenta
peritonitis
laminitis
uterine adhesions

15

Post-op hysterotomy (C-section) care:

Fluids
AM
NSAIDs - pain and anti-inflamm
Fluids
Oxytocin

16

CLinical signs of uterine torsion

Low grade colic
(have on DDx if pregnant)
need rectal to know

17

Approaches to uterine torsion

Rolling +/- plank - need confidence and muscle. not done
standing flank - blind, but gravity
ventral midline - fill w/ water to help. also can explore a lot

18

Complications of uterine torsion

uterine necrosis
abortion
hemorrhage
GI trauma

19

Prognosis to mares and foals

75% to mares
live foal 55-70%

20

whats the worry with fixing the uterine prolapse?

may have torn and is occluded but now will hemorrhage when fixed

Also, the bladder will be blocked so when corrected, will be peed on.

21

Definition of urovagina

urine in the vaginal fornix

22

what does urovagina cause?

vaginitis, cervicitis, decreased fertility

23

predisposing factors to urovagina

tipped cervix and uterus so things drain in

24

effects of urovagina on repro

sperm doesn't like urine

25

Dx of urovagina

speculum exam

26

ddx to urovagina

exudate, always there?

27

what is involved in a vestibuloplasty?

cut fresh edges on the transverse process of the vagina and suture it to more forward tissue. put a roof over the urine. But suturing is in the dark

28

what is urethroplasty?

lengthening the urethra

29

post-operatively on the vestibuloplasty, ...

AM, NSAIDS
monitor urination
don't breed for 6-8 wks
check for a fistula in a few weeks

30

indications for a caslick's

penumovagina
fecal contamination

31

factors that are considered when doing vulvoplasty

multiparous?
foaling injuries
general body condition
conformation of the vulva and

32

When blocking for the vulvoplasty, what should you consider?

go at the pig/non-pigmented junction
start blocking from the bottom of the vulva up

33

complications of the vulvoplasty

excress surgical trauma
fistula
vaginal reflux of urine
1-2nd perineal laceration if not removed before foaling

34

When do we do perineal body reconstruction?

when vulvar and vestibular seals are not effective anymore

35

perineal body transection (pourets' proc) is indicated when...

pneumovag
urovag

36

complications of the pourets' procedure

infection/dehiscence
urovagina
fistula formation

37

what does pourets' procedure entail?

cutting sharp/bluntly the perineum in a triangular fashion and either suturing or leaving for second intention healing.

38

recto-vaginal lacteration degrees entail...

1st - mucosa
2nd - muc/sub/musc
3rd - disrupt the perineal body, anal sphincter, floor of rectum and ceiling of vestibulee

39

what can you do with a 2nd degree RV laceration?

nothing
NSAIDs, 4-6 wks, it will heal alot

40

treatment of the 3rd degree RV laceration

wait 4-6 weeks
high fluids to slop the feces
change diet - don't give oil though

41

Actual repair of the 3rd degree RV laceration

have 3 suture lines. One for the vagina, one for the rectum and one in the middle. . Need to work with all three at a time. start deep.

Can do 2-stage or single stage but 2 needs 3-4 weeks in between repairs. Do the vagina first in this case

42

Complications of 3rd degree RV lacerations

repeat trauma
complete dehiscence
fistula formation
obstipation
urine pooling

43

Prognosis for 3rd degree RV laceration

75% will breed again

44

Cause of rectovestibular fistula

foaling injury
failure of 3rd degree RV to repair

45

Methods for repair of Rvestibular fistula

conversion to a 3rd degree and treat that way (don't though)
perineal body transection
vestibular approach