Basics of Urogenital Tract Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Basics of Urogenital Tract Deck (27):
1

indications for castration

1) Reduce masculine behavior in animals unsuitable for the genetic pool
2) Birth control
3) Testicular neoplasia
4) Inguinal hernias
5) Testicular trauma

2

What is important to administer or check before doing a castration

tetanus status and if in doubt vx8

3

who not to do standing castrations in

ponies, mules, donkeys, bad temperament (do they jump when touched?)

4

good drugs for standing castration?

detomidine (more sedate and planted) > xylasine
also give torb for analgesia

5

good drugs for recumbent castration?

xylazine, ketamine and diazepam

6

In recumbency castration, whats a good tip to remember for order of nuts?

bottom nut first and
nut to nut

7

techniques used for castration

open, closed, half-closed, and then a few variations (some will close the outer incisions, make a rectangle and remove the

8

what are the benefits and downfalls of open castration?

pro - easy, get through both and to the nut and go.
con - a little more bleeding

9

What is a benefits of closed castration?

very little bleeding

10

Whats his rule for time on the nut with the emasculator?

1 min per year of age plus one to a max of 5

11

when to check for hemorrhage after cutting the testes out?

15-20 after cutting and then at the end before the horse is up again

12

what is a benefit and risk of open castration

less dissecting to better for standing
causing hydrocele

13

aftercare for a castration

1) Restricted activity for 24 hours
2) Daily exercise to decrease edema formation and assist in drainage
3) Daily hydrotherapy can aid in controlling the swelling and maintenance of drainage.
4) The incisions should heal in 3 wks
5) Isolate the horse from mares for at least 2 days and preferably 1 wk, ejaculates are highly unlikely to contain sufficient spermatozoa to cause impregnation after 2 days.

14

Complications of castration

hemorrhage - pack?, quiet?, find the bleeder
evisceration - w/i 4 hours of surgery
edema - mostly day 3 and 4
septic funiculitis - usually not enough drainage -
clostridial infection
septic peritonitis
penile drainage
hydrocoele - from open --> get rid of the rest of the parietal tunic, draining won't
continued masculine behaviour - 20-30%

15

Dx of inguinal crypt

inguinal palpation and rectal palpation
US
exploratory
hormonal assays - basal test., hCG stim, or estrone stim

16

Cryptorchids are usually located in what part of the body (L or R)?

right - inguinal
left - abdomen

17

hCG stim test doesn't work when

18

Estrone sulfate test doesn't work when

19

what approaches can you take for cryptorchids?

inguinal (purse-string the prepuce for this one)
para-inguinal -
Flank approach - hard to exteriorize
suprapubic paramedian approach - large vessels and a lot of closure
laparoscopic approaches -

20

Will hormone induced descent work?

no, except maybe inguinals

21

risk factors for urolithiasis

NSAIDs,

22

equine calculi composition

calcium carbonate

23

What is the reason for post-exercise hematureia

the stones bounce around in the bladder

24

clinical signs of cystolithiasis

pollakiuria, stranguria, urine incontinence, dysuria

25

Dx of cystolithiasis

rectal palpation
US
endoscopy

26

what is sabulous urolithiasis?

accumulation of a large amount of crystalooid sediment caused by incomplete bladder emptying or neurological disorders

27

CLinical signs of sabulous urolithiasis

urinary incontinence and ataxia of hind limbs