Flashcards in Basics of Urogenital Tract Deck (27):
indications for castration
1) Reduce masculine behavior in animals unsuitable for the genetic pool
2) Birth control
3) Testicular neoplasia
4) Inguinal hernias
5) Testicular trauma
What is important to administer or check before doing a castration
tetanus status and if in doubt vx8
who not to do standing castrations in
ponies, mules, donkeys, bad temperament (do they jump when touched?)
good drugs for standing castration?
detomidine (more sedate and planted) > xylasine
also give torb for analgesia
good drugs for recumbent castration?
xylazine, ketamine and diazepam
In recumbency castration, whats a good tip to remember for order of nuts?
bottom nut first and
nut to nut
techniques used for castration
open, closed, half-closed, and then a few variations (some will close the outer incisions, make a rectangle and remove the
what are the benefits and downfalls of open castration?
pro - easy, get through both and to the nut and go.
con - a little more bleeding
What is a benefits of closed castration?
very little bleeding
Whats his rule for time on the nut with the emasculator?
1 min per year of age plus one to a max of 5
when to check for hemorrhage after cutting the testes out?
15-20 after cutting and then at the end before the horse is up again
what is a benefit and risk of open castration
less dissecting to better for standing
aftercare for a castration
1) Restricted activity for 24 hours
2) Daily exercise to decrease edema formation and assist in drainage
3) Daily hydrotherapy can aid in controlling the swelling and maintenance of drainage.
4) The incisions should heal in 3 wks
5) Isolate the horse from mares for at least 2 days and preferably 1 wk, ejaculates are highly unlikely to contain sufficient spermatozoa to cause impregnation after 2 days.
Complications of castration
hemorrhage - pack?, quiet?, find the bleeder
evisceration - w/i 4 hours of surgery
edema - mostly day 3 and 4
septic funiculitis - usually not enough drainage -
hydrocoele - from open --> get rid of the rest of the parietal tunic, draining won't
continued masculine behaviour - 20-30%
Dx of inguinal crypt
inguinal palpation and rectal palpation
hormonal assays - basal test., hCG stim, or estrone stim
Cryptorchids are usually located in what part of the body (L or R)?
right - inguinal
left - abdomen
hCG stim test doesn't work when
Estrone sulfate test doesn't work when
what approaches can you take for cryptorchids?
inguinal (purse-string the prepuce for this one)
Flank approach - hard to exteriorize
suprapubic paramedian approach - large vessels and a lot of closure
laparoscopic approaches -
Will hormone induced descent work?
no, except maybe inguinals
risk factors for urolithiasis
equine calculi composition
What is the reason for post-exercise hematureia
the stones bounce around in the bladder
clinical signs of cystolithiasis
pollakiuria, stranguria, urine incontinence, dysuria
Dx of cystolithiasis
what is sabulous urolithiasis?
accumulation of a large amount of crystalooid sediment caused by incomplete bladder emptying or neurological disorders