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Flashcards in Behavioral & Developmental Pediatrics Deck (98)
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When do primitive reflexes (moro reflex) appear? When do they disappear?

Present at birth and usually disappear between 3 and 6 months of age


What does it mean when an infant shows stronger and more-sustained primitive reflexes?

Central nervous system injury


Infants with CNS damage may have delayed development of ________ reactions



Gross Motor Milestones

  • Birth:
  • 2 months:
  • 4 months:

  • Birth: Turns head to side
  • 2 months: Lifts head when lying prone, head lag when pulled from supine position
  • 4 months: Rolls over, no head lag, pushes chest up with arms


Gross Motor Milestones

  • 6 months:
  • 9 months:
  • 12 months:

  • 6 months: Sits alone, leads with head when pulled from supine position
  • 9 months: Pulls to stand, cruises
  • 12 months: Walks


An infant's fine motor skills progress from control over ______ muscles to control over ______ muscles

Proximal; Distal


What are the primitive reflexes?

  • Moro reflex: symmetric abduction and extension of arms with trunk extension
  • Hand grasp: reflex grasp of any object placed in palm
  • Atonic neck reflex: If head is turned to one side, arms and legs extend on same side and flex on the opposite
  • Rooting reflex: turning of head toward same side as stimulus when corner of infant's mouth is stimulated


What are the postural reactions, and when do they start?

  • Head righting: ability to keep head vertical despite body being tilted (4-6 months)
  • Parachute: Outstretched arms and legs when body is abruptly moved head first in downward direction (8-9 months)


What are the fine motor milestones?

  • Birth:
  • 3-4 months:
  • 4-5 months:

  • Birth: Keeps hands tightly fisted
  • 3-4 months: Brings hands together to midline and then to mouth
  • 4-5 months: Reaches for objects


Fine motor milestones:

  • 6-7 months:
  • 9 months:
  • 12 months:

  • 6-7 months: Rakes object with whole hand; transfers object from hand to hand
  • 9 months: Uses immature pincer (ability to hold small object between thumb and index finger)
    12 months: Uses mature pincer (between thumb and tip of index finger)


What is the earliest sign of neuromotor problems in development?

Persistent fisting beyond 3 months of age


What red flags in motor development indicate spasticity?

Early rolling over, early pulling to a stand instead of sitting, and persistent toe walking


Early hand dominance (before 18 months of age) may be a sign of...

weakness in the opposite upper extremity associated with hemiparesis


Delays in ______ development are more common than delays in other domains



When is the window of opportunity for optimal language acquisition?

first 2 years of life


What is the difference between language and speech?

  • Language: refers to the ability to communicate with symbols
  • Speech: The vocal expression of language


At what age are cooing and musical sounds expected?

2-3 months


At what age is there babbling? When are words first used?

6 months: babbling

12 months: 1-3 words (mama, dada)


By 18 months, a child should know __ - __ words

By 3 years, more than __% of the child's speech should be intelligible

By 18 months, a child should know 20-50 words

By 3 years, more than 75% of the child's speech should be intelligible


What is the prespeech period?

0-10 months: expressive language consists of musical like vowel sounds (cooing) and adding consonants to the vowel sounds; receptive language is characterized by increasing ability to localize sounds


What is the naming period?

10-18 months: Characterized by the infant's understanding that people have names and objects have labels


What is the word combination period?

18-24 months: Early word combinations are "telegraphic" (no prepositions, pronouns, articles)


Intellecutal development depends on what three things?

  1. Attention
  2. Information processing
  3. Memory


What is the single best indicator of intellectual potential?



What are the 5 stages of cognitive development? When does each start?

  1. Sensorimotor period - Physical manipulation of objects (birth to 2 years)
  2. Stage of functional play (begins at about 1 year of age)
  3. Stage of imaginitve play (24-30 months)
  4. Concrete thinking (preschool and early elementary years)
  5. Abstract thinking (Adolescent years)


Object permanence develops at about _ months

As a result of this ability to maintain an image of a person ______ _______ develops when a loved one leaves the room

9 months; separation anxiety


What is magical thinking?

A normal state of mind during the preschool toddler years when a child assumes inanimate objects are alive and have feelings


What are some red flags in cognitive development?

  • Skills significantly delayed in language and problem solving: mental retardation
  • Language skills delayed: hearing impairment of communication disorder
  • Problem solving skills delayed: Visual or fine motor problems
  • Discrepance between language and problem solving skills: Learning disabilities


Social skill milestones in order include...

  1. Attachment
  2. A sense of independence
  3. Social play


What is cerebral palsy?

A group of static (nonprogressive) encephalopathies caused by injury to the developing brain in which motor function is primarily affected