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Flashcards in Development Deck (62)
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1

What is the 'median age'

The age at which half a standard population of children will have acquired a skill

2

What is the 'limit age'

The maximum age at which a child should have developed a skill (usually 2 standard deviations above the mean)

3

What is the staging system used to define the different points of puberty?

The Tanner Staging System

4

What are the 3 stages of puberty as defined by the Tanner System

Pre-puberty
In puberty
Completing puberty

5

What is the age of precocious puberty for boys and girls?

Girls - Under 8 years old
Boys - Under 9 years old

6

What defines the 'pre-pubertal' stage of puberty for boys and girls?

Girls: No breast or nipple enlargement, no pubic hair growth
Boys: High voice, no growth of testes or penis, no pubic hair growth

7

What defines the 'in puberty' stage of puberty for boys and girls?

Girls: Breast enlargement only when accompanied by nipple enlargement, some development of pubic and axillary hair
Boys: Reddening of scrotum with growth of testes and growth of penis, early voice deepening, development of pubic and axillary hair

8

What defines the 'completing puberty' stage of puberty for boys and girls?

Girls: Breast and nipple enlargement, pubic and axillary hair developed, periods started
Boys: Voice fully deepened, adult size of penis, growth of pubic and axillary hair, growth of moustache and early facial hair growth

9

At what age is puberty described as 'delayed' for boys and girls?

Girls - Over age 13
Boys - Over age 14

10

What are the primitive reflexes?

Moro
Sucking
Babinski
Rooting
Stepping
Grasping
Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex

11

What are the warning signs for developmental delay at 6 weeks?

No smiling
Excessive head lag
No fixing and following
No response to sounds
Asymmetrical primitive reflexes

12

What are the warning signs for developmental delay at 8 months?

Persistence of primitive reflexes
Hand preference
Squinting
Fisting

13

What are the median ages for drawing ability in infants and young children? This reflects their fine motor and visual skills.

18 months = Linear and circular scribble
2 years = Line
3 years = Circle
4 years = Cross (+)
5 years = Square, then triangle
6 years = Diamond

14

True / False: About 80% of cerebral palsy results from antenatal causes

True

15

What are the different types of cerebral palsy?

Spastic cerebral palsy
Dyskinetic (Choreathetoid) cerebral palsy
Ataxic (hypotonic) cerebral palsy

16

Which pathway is damaged in spastic cerebral palsy?

Upper motor neurons - pyramidal or corticospinal tracts

17

What are the 3 types of spastic cerebral palsy?

Hemiplegia
Quadriplegia
Diplegia

18

Which type of cerebral palsy results from damage to the basal ganglia?

Choreathetoid (dyskinetic) cerebral palsy

19

Give 2 causes of dyskinetic (choreathetoid) cerebral palsy

Kernicterus
Hypoxic-ischaemic encephalopathy

20

What is the triad of presenting characteristics f autism spectrum disorders?

- Impaired reciprocal social interaction
- Retualistic or repetitive behaviours
- Speech and language disorder

21

What is the inheritance pattern of Rett's syndrome?

X linked dominant

22

Which gender is primarily affected by Rett's syndrome?

Females

23

When do features of autism generally emerge?

Before the age of 3 years old

24

What is thelarche?

Development of breast tissue

25

Is precocious puberty more common in males or females?

Females

26

True / False: Precocious puberty in males usually has an underlying organic cause?

True

27

Is delayed puberty more common in males or females?

Males

28

Is most cerebral palsy in the UK acquired in the antenatal, perinatal or postnatal period?

Antenatal

29

What is cerebral palsy?

Abnormality in motor function and posture resulting from abnormalities in brain function. Can also result in learning difficulties, cognitive impairment, behavioural anomalies and seizures. The brain lesion occurs before the age of 2 and is non-progressive, although the symptoms themselves may progress such that the condition appears to be degenerative.

30

What might be the findings on neurological examination of a child with spastic cerebral palsy?

'Clasp-knife' spasticity
Brisk reflexes
Up-going plantars
Distribution will depend on the sub-type of cerebral palsy (e.g. hemiplegic, diplegia, quadriplegic)