Flashcards in Development Deck (62)
What is the 'median age'
The age at which half a standard population of children will have acquired a skill
What is the 'limit age'
The maximum age at which a child should have developed a skill (usually 2 standard deviations above the mean)
What is the staging system used to define the different points of puberty?
The Tanner Staging System
What are the 3 stages of puberty as defined by the Tanner System
What is the age of precocious puberty for boys and girls?
Girls - Under 8 years old
Boys - Under 9 years old
What defines the 'pre-pubertal' stage of puberty for boys and girls?
Girls: No breast or nipple enlargement, no pubic hair growth
Boys: High voice, no growth of testes or penis, no pubic hair growth
What defines the 'in puberty' stage of puberty for boys and girls?
Girls: Breast enlargement only when accompanied by nipple enlargement, some development of pubic and axillary hair
Boys: Reddening of scrotum with growth of testes and growth of penis, early voice deepening, development of pubic and axillary hair
What defines the 'completing puberty' stage of puberty for boys and girls?
Girls: Breast and nipple enlargement, pubic and axillary hair developed, periods started
Boys: Voice fully deepened, adult size of penis, growth of pubic and axillary hair, growth of moustache and early facial hair growth
At what age is puberty described as 'delayed' for boys and girls?
Girls - Over age 13
Boys - Over age 14
What are the primitive reflexes?
Asymmetrical tonic neck reflex
What are the warning signs for developmental delay at 6 weeks?
Excessive head lag
No fixing and following
No response to sounds
Asymmetrical primitive reflexes
What are the warning signs for developmental delay at 8 months?
Persistence of primitive reflexes
What are the median ages for drawing ability in infants and young children? This reflects their fine motor and visual skills.
18 months = Linear and circular scribble
2 years = Line
3 years = Circle
4 years = Cross (+)
5 years = Square, then triangle
6 years = Diamond
True / False: About 80% of cerebral palsy results from antenatal causes
What are the different types of cerebral palsy?
Spastic cerebral palsy
Dyskinetic (Choreathetoid) cerebral palsy
Ataxic (hypotonic) cerebral palsy
Which pathway is damaged in spastic cerebral palsy?
Upper motor neurons - pyramidal or corticospinal tracts
What are the 3 types of spastic cerebral palsy?
Which type of cerebral palsy results from damage to the basal ganglia?
Choreathetoid (dyskinetic) cerebral palsy
Give 2 causes of dyskinetic (choreathetoid) cerebral palsy
What is the triad of presenting characteristics f autism spectrum disorders?
- Impaired reciprocal social interaction
- Retualistic or repetitive behaviours
- Speech and language disorder
What is the inheritance pattern of Rett's syndrome?
X linked dominant
Which gender is primarily affected by Rett's syndrome?
When do features of autism generally emerge?
Before the age of 3 years old
What is thelarche?
Development of breast tissue
Is precocious puberty more common in males or females?
True / False: Precocious puberty in males usually has an underlying organic cause?
Is delayed puberty more common in males or females?
Is most cerebral palsy in the UK acquired in the antenatal, perinatal or postnatal period?
What is cerebral palsy?
Abnormality in motor function and posture resulting from abnormalities in brain function. Can also result in learning difficulties, cognitive impairment, behavioural anomalies and seizures. The brain lesion occurs before the age of 2 and is non-progressive, although the symptoms themselves may progress such that the condition appears to be degenerative.