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Flashcards in Human Growth and Development Deck (27)
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Preterm is defined as?

Preterm is a newborn with gestational age estimated as less than 37 weeks
*Late preterm is a newborn at 34 weeks to 36 weeks


What are the weights for the following?
Low Birth Weight (LBW)
Very Low Birth Weight (VLBW)
Extremely Low Birth Weight (ELBW)

LBW: < or equal to 2500g
VLBW: < or equal to 1500g
ELBW: < or equal to 1000g


What classifies as a large for gestational age (LGA) baby?

LGA: weight is above the 90th percentile; often associated with diabetic pregnancies


Small for gestational age (SGA) can be classified into what two categories?

SGA can be classified as either symmetric intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR) or asymmetric intrauterine growth retardation


What is the difference between symmetric and asymmetric IUGR?

With symmetric IUGR weight, length, and head circumference are SGA. This reflects a long-standing compromise and/or factors that are intrinsic to the infant such as a syndrome complex.

Asymmetric IUGR includes underweight for length and HC. It reflects an acute compromise extrinsic to fetus such as placental insufficiency


Average US newborn length, weight and head circumference?

Length: 20.16 in (51.2 cm)
Weight: 7.63 lbs (3468 g)
HC: 14.2 in (35 cm)


How much weight does an average newborn lose in the first 3 to 4 days of life?

An average newborn will lose 8-10% of their birth weight in the first 3-4 days of life but will regain it by 7 days (if formula fed), 14 days (if breastfed)


Weight pattern for:
6 months
1 year
2 year

doubles by 6 months
triples by 1 year
quadruples by 2 years


Length pattern for:
1 year
4 years
13 years

increases by 50% by 1 year
doubles by 4 years
triples by 13 years
* Increases by 1 inch per month during 1st 6 months and then 0.5 inch (1.3 cm) per month through first year


What is the average weight gain per week during the first 6 months?

The average weight gain during the first 6 months is 5-7 oz (150-210 g)


What is the average weight gain during months 6 to 12?

The average weight gain during months 6 to 12 is 12-20 oz.


What is the average weight gain per month in the second year of life?

Average weight gain in second year is 8 to 9 oz per month (240 to 270 g)


What is the pattern of growth for HC in newborns?

HC increases by 0.5 inches (1.3 cm) per month during the first 6 months
0.3 inches (0.65 cm) per month through the first year


When do cranial sutures close?

Cranial sutures close during the first year of life.


What are a newborns fontanel's called and when do they close?

Posterior fontanel: closes by 6-8 weeks of age
Anterior fontanel: closes by 12-18 months of age


When does teeth formation begin?

Formation of teeth begins during the third fetal month and continues through adolescence


What are your first set of teeth called?

Your first set of teeth are called primary or deciduous teeth and are later replaced by permanent teeth.


When do the following upper teeth erupt/shed:
1. Central Incisor
2. Lateral Incisor
3. Canine (cuspid)
4. First molar
5. Second molar

Erupt Shed
1. Central Incisor 8-12 mos 6-7 yrs
2. Lateral Incisor 9-13 mos 7-8 yrs
3. Canine (cuspid) 16-22 mos 10-12 yrs
4. First molar 13-19 mos 9-11 yrs
5. Second molar 25-33 mos 10-12 yrs


When do the following lower teeth erupt/shed?
1. Second molar
2. First molar
3. Canine (cuspid)
4. Lateral incisor
5. Central incisor

Erupt Shed
1. Second molar 8-12 mos 6-7 yrs
2. First molar 9-13 mos 7-8 yrs
3. Canine (cuspid) 16-22 mos 10-12 yrs
4. Lateral incisor 13-19 mos 9-11 yrs
5. Central incisor 25-33 mos 10-12 yrs


Survival reflexes are broken down into what three groups?

1. breathing, hiccups, sneezes, spitting up as infant tries to regulate breathing, sucking and swallowing

2. Temperature control reflexes: cry, shivering, tucking legs close to body

3. Feeding reflexes: sucking, rooting, crying and swallowing


What are nonsurvival reflexes?

Babinski, stepping, swimming, grasping, moro or startle reflexes


What is the palmer grasp?

It is the grasp reflex. Infant grips around an aboject that touches their palm. Strongest by 1-2 months and disappears by 3 months


What is the plantar grasp?

The planter reflex will elicit a positive Babinski sign. Dorsiflexion of the big toe and fanning of the rest of toes ( positive Babinski sign). Disappears after 8 months


What is the moro reflex?

The Moro reflex is an infantile reflex that occurs in response to a sudden loss of support. The response can be broken down into three parts:
1. spreading out of the arms (abduction)
2. unspreading the arms (adduction)
3. crying (usually)

It disappears by 6 months


What is the stepping reflex?

Also known as dance/walking reflex. When a baby is held up right and their feet touches a flat surface, they lift one foot then the other.fe
Disappears before voluntary walking


What is the fencing reflex?

Asymmetric tonic neck reflex. It's when the face is turned to one side, the arm and leg on the side to which the face is turned extend and the arm and leg on the opposite side flex.
Diminished by 3-4 months, disappears by 6 months


Screening for violence should occur when? and when do you refer to a mental health person?

8 years of age
A referral to a mental health professional for additional treatment is appropriate:
• when the symptoms are chronic (more than 6 months in duration) or not improving,
• if the violent event involved the death or departure of a parent,
• if the caregivers are unable to empathize with the child, or
• if the ongoing safety of the child is a concern.