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Flashcards in Endocrinology Pt. 1 Deck (42)
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1

Short stature is defined as height that is ____ standard deviations below the mean

two

2

What is normal variant short stature?

What is pathologic short stature?

  • What is normal variant short stature?
    • Describes a child whose height is below the third percentile but is growing with a normal growth velocity
  • What is pathologic short stature?
    • Describes a child whose height is below the third percentile but is growing with a suboptimal growth velocity

3

Most children, when they have completed their growth, are within ___ SDs, or __ inches of their MPH

+/-2SDs or 4 inches

4

What drugs can lead to short stature?

Steroids, or stimulants for ADHD that result in significant appetite suppression and poor weight gain

5

Why is social history critical in evaluation of short stature?

Because children who live in neglected or hostile environments may exhibit short stature because of psychosocial deprivation

6

What are the two most common categories of normal variant short stature?

Familal short stature and constitutional delay with delayed puberty

7

What is familial short stature?

Height at least 2 SDs below the mean with a short MPH but with a normal bone age, a normal onset of puberty, and a minimum growth of 2 inches per year

8

What is consitutional short stature?

Height at least 2 SDs below the mean with a history of delayed puberty in either or both parents, a delayed bone age, and late onset puberty

9

What are causes of prenatal onset proportionate short stature?

  • Environmental exposures (in utero exposure to tobacco and alcohol)
  • Chromosome disorders (Down syndrome, Turner)
  • Genetic syndromes
  • Viral infection early in pregnancy

10

What labs should be done in the evaluation of pathologic short stature?

CBC, ESR, T4, serum electrolytes, creatinine, bicarb, IGF-1

11

What radiographic studies are done in the evaluation of patients with pathologic short stature?

  • Bone age: determination is very helpful to compare with chronologic age
  • AP and lateral skull radiographs are necessary to assess the pituitary gland

12

If a person with short stature has bone age = chronologic age, what is the differential?

  • Familal short stature
  • Intrauterine growth retardation
  • Turner syndrome
  • Skeletal dysplasia

13

What endocrinopathies cause short stature?

  • Growth hormone deficiency
  • Hypothyroidism
  • Hypercortisolism
  • Turner syndrome

14

Patients with GH deficiency have ______ bone age and must have an ____ to rule out a CNS lesion

delayed; MRI

15

What lab findings are associated with hypothyroidism?

  • Increased TSH
  • Low T4
  • Positive antithyroid peroxidase antibodies

16

Puberty begins when there is a reduction in ______ _______ resulting in activation of the _______

Hypothalamic inhibition; HPGA (hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis)

17

Onset of female puberty is between __ and __ years of age

7 and 13

18

________ is the onset of breast development 

Thelarche

19

What is the first sign of puberty in girls?

Breast buds (adrenarche in 15% of girls)

20

What are the roles of FSH and LH in menstruation?

FSH stimulates the ovaries to produce ovarian follicles, which in turn produce estrogen

LH is responsible for the positive feedback in the middle of the menstrual cycle resulting in the release of egg

21

Male puberty onset is between __ and __ years of age

9 and 14

22

What is the first sign of male puberty?

Testicular enlargement

23

What are the roles of FSH and LH in male puberty?

FSH: Stimulates the seminiferous tubules in the testes to produce sperm

LH: stimulates the testicular Leydig cells to produce androgens, which in turn are responsible for penile enlargement and the growth of axillary, facial, and pubic hair

24

What is precocious puberty in girls vs boys?

Girls: Presence of breast development or pubic hair before 7 years of age or menarche before 9 years of age

Boys: Any pubertal changes before 9 years of age

25

When is treatment indicated for premature thelarche?

If there is also pubic hair development or a rapid growth spurt

26

Premature adrenarche is more common in ___ than ____

girls > boys

27

When does premature adrenarche clasically present? What is the treatment?

After 5 years of age, with the onset of pubic hair growth, axillary growth and apocrine odor

No treatment is indicated

28

Delayed puberty in boys means no testicular enlargement by ____ years of age

14

29

Delayed puberty in girls means no breast tissue by ____ years of age or no menarche by ___ years of age

13;14

30

What is the difference between Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism?

  • Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism: Inactivity of the hypothalamus and pituitary gland; patients have low FSH, low LH, and in turn, low testosterone and low estradiol
  • Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism: End organ function (gonadal failure) leading to high FSH and high LH levels with low testosterone or low estradiol levels