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Flashcards in Behavioral Neuroscience Deck (32)
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What are the types of Behavioral Neuroscience Research methods?

- Histology
- Autopsy
- Imaging
- Recoding
- Brain Stimulation
- Lesion
- Biochemical Methods
- Genetic Methods


What is the purpose of Histology?

it provides the means for observing structures, organization and connection of individual cells
(refers to the study of microscopic structures and tissues)


What is the downside of Fluorescent Microscopy?

the specimen does now emit fluorescence indefinitely therefore, you have to work quickly


Describe Fluorescent Microscopy

works by labelling a specimen with a particular fluorophore, a chemical that emits light when excited by light. the specimen is then illuminated with a different wavelength, which causes it to emit fluorescence that is then analyzed


Describe Electron Microscopy

uses beam of electrons rather than beams of visible light to illuminate a specimen.
because electrons have much shorter wavelengths than photons, resolution is much improved.
it allows us to see features as small as a single molecule of neurochemical


List 2 differences of Light Microscopy and Electron Microscopy

light microscopy:
- illuminating source is the light
- specimen preparation takes usually few minutes to hours.

electron microscopy:
- illuminating source is the beam of electrons
- specimen preparation takes usually takes few days


What is the downside of Electron Microscopy?

it cannot be used on living cells. Specimens require dehydration and chemical treatments that are incompatible with life


What are the two methods of Tissue Fixation?

1. freeze the tissue
2. treat it with formalin, a liquid containing the gas formaldehyde
These methods will harden the tissue to make it possible to slice it.
Preserve the tissue from breaking down by enzymes or bacteria


How does Microtome Machine works?

a tissue is pushed forward while a sliding blade moves back and forth across the tissue, producing slices. other microtomes use a vibrating knife, similar to that of your electrical toothbrush.
these are particularly useful when sectioning tissue that is not frozen.


List and describe the different types of specialized stains

Golgi stain:
To make a detailed structural analysis of a small number of single cells

Nissl stain:
Interested in identifying clusters of cell bodies, the major bulk of the nerve cell, within a sample of tissue

Myelin stain:
Allow you to follow pathways carrying information from one part of the brain to another by staining the insulating material that covers many nerves fibres

Horseradish peroxidase:
If you know where the pathway ends but would like to discover its point of origin
When this enzyme is injected into the end of the nerve fibre, it travels backward toward the cell body


What are the different types of Imaging

- CT


What are the disadvantages of CT scan

only provides with structural information. therefore, it is unable to discriminate between active and inactive regions of the brain
individuals have to undergo repeated exposure to x-rays --> increase the risk of getting cancer


Describe the procedures of conducting a PET scan

Our brain uses two primary nutrients to produce neuro-signals to communicate - glucose and oxygen
An individual will be injected with a radioactive substance that will be tagging on to the glucose/oxygen
When the two nutrients are used, it will then show up under the PET scan. This allows us to know that a certain areas are active while doing a particular task as they are utilizing a lot more glucose and oxygen


What is the main difference of PET and CT scans?

CT scans look at the structure whereas PET scans look at the function


How does MRI provide structure images of your brains?

through magnetism and radiofrequency (RF)


What are the steps used to conduct MRI scans?

MRI uses magnetism and radiofrequency to provide structure images of our brain
Uses powerful magnets to align hydrogen atoms within a magnetic field. Next, Radio Frequency (RF) pulses are directed at the part of the body to be imaged, producing "resonance", or spinning, of the hydrogen atoms. When the RF pulses cease, the hydrogen atoms return to their natural alignment within the magnetic field. As the atoms "relax", each becomes a miniature radio transmitter, emitting a characteristic pulse that is detected by the scanner


What does the coloration/darkness of each voxel represent?

the level of pulse activity in an area


What is the purpose of fMRI?

This method allows us to examine functions by tacking the use and flow of blood and oxygen
It allows us to correlate brain activity with the presentation of a stimulus, the presence of an emotional state, or the performance of a particular task in living humans


What is the purpose of DTI (Diffusion Tensor Imaging)?

Constructs maps of the brain's Fibre Pathways and tracks the flow of water down the length of nerve fibres


List down the different methods of recording

- ERPs
- Single-cell recordings


Which method of recording is the most useful for examining states of consciousness?



What is the purpose of ERPs?

Used to examine the brain's response to an environmental stimuli
Helpful in cases in which a person's behaviour does not provide a clear indication of whether a particular stimulus has been perceived (e.g., children with autism)


List down the advantages of MEG

Provides a much more clearer image as EEG is exposed to interference such as our scalps and bones
Provides researchers with an important technique for studying brain response to sound
An added advantage of being silent, as opposed to the loud hammering sound produced by the magnets used in MRI


What are the two types of Single-cell recordings?

extracellular recording and intracellular recording


How are surface electrodes used during neurosurgery?

electrodes are being attached to the brain and observe what happens to that part of the brain when it is being stimulated


What is the procedure used for surgically implanted electrodes?

Electrodes are inserted deep into the brain to stimulate the particular area of the brain


What are the different methods of Brain stimulation?

- surface electrodes during neurosurgery
- surgically implanted electrodes
- RTMs
- optogenetic


What is lesion and the purpose of it?

it refers to the injury of neural tissues
the purpose of lesion is to assess the probable function of an area


List down the types of lesion.

Naturally occurring:
Due to injuries or disease

Deliberately produced:
Ablation - surgical removal of neural tissue


What are the two types of biochemical methods?

- chemical stimulation
- micro-dialysis