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Flashcards in Psychopharmacology Deck (25)
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1

The tiny space between the terminal button and the dendrite of another neuron is called the _____.

Synaptic cleft

2

When a neural impulse reaches the end of an axon, it causes the tiny sacs at the end of the axon to release chemicals called ______.

Neurotransmitters

3

Most terminal buttons contain a number of tiny storage sacs called _____.

Synaptic Vesicles

4

The entire area composed of the terminal button, the synaptic cleft, and the dendrite or soma of the next neuron is called the _____.

Synapse

5

What is the purpose of endorphins?

It involved in the reduction of pain and enhancement of pleasure

6

A neurotransmitter that is associated with both schizophrenia and PD is _____.

Dopamine

7

What does an agonist do?

It mimics the effects of a natural neurotransmitter and do so by binding directly to a receptor site.

8

Acetylcholine is a neurotransmitter that is associated with the _____.

a. regulation of sleep
b. regulation of pain and pleasure
c. inactivation if synaptic processes
d. regulation of both memory and movement
e. modulation of anxiety

(d)

9

What is a postsynaptic potential (PSP)?

A PSP is dependent on the release of a neurotransmitter into the synaptic cleft that binds to a receptor site. A PSP is a graded response that affects the probability of a neuronal impulse based on its size and polarity

10

How many stages are involved in the transmission of a neuronal impulse across the synaptic junction.

Five

11

The site of neurotransmitter synthesis is _____.

Neuronal Soma. Neurotransmitter synthesis occurs within the soma, where the nucleus of a nueron is found

12

What happens with the release of neurotransmitters?

Following the release of neurotransmitters into the synaptic cleft, they may bind to receptor sites and if sufficient may trigger an action potential at the postsynaptic membrane. Neurotransmitters may then be inactivated by enzymes present in the synaptic cleft.

13

Receptor sites are located on _____

Postsynaptic membrane.
This membrane receives information from another neuron and contains receptor sites for this purpose.

14

Following the initiation of an action potential on the postsynaptic membrane, what might happen to the neurotransmitter?

Neurotransmitters may be taken up by the presynaptic membrane after a synaptic transmission for reuse.

15

Following reuptake of neurotransmitters, _____.

a. some will be stored in the receptor sites
b. some will be stored in the soma
c. some will be “resynthesized” in the vesicles
d. some will be stored in the synaptic vesicles
e. none of the alternatives is correct

(d)

16

Following the synthesis of the neurotransmitters _____.

a. they are transported to the postsynaptic membrane via the dendrites
b. they are transported to the postsynaptic membrane via the axon
c. they are transported to the presynaptic membrane via the dendrites
d. they are transported to the presynaptic membrane via the axon

(c)

17

What are synaptic vesicles involved in?

They are involved in the storage, transport, release, and reuptake of neurotransmitters

18

Where are neurotransmitters released from?

Presynaptic neuronal membrane

19

What happens when within the synaptic cleft?

a. neurotransmitters are synthesised
b. neurotransmitters are reabsorbed
c. neurotransmitters are inactivated
d. synaptic vesicles are produced
e. neurotransmitters are packaged

(c)

20

What does neurochemicals include?

Neurotransmitters, Neuromodulators and Neurohormones

21

What does neurotransmitters participate in?

They participate in nondirected synapses by acting on neurons in their own immediate vicinity

22

What does neuromodulators participate in?

They participate in nondirected synapses by acting on more distant neurons.
Neuromodulators communicate with target diffuse away from the point of release

23

What does neurohormones participate in?

They participate in nondirected synapses by acting on more distant neurons.
Neurohormones travel in blood supply to reach their final target

24

What are the features of small-molecules?

In terms of:
-Synthesis
-Recycling of vesicles
-Activation
-Deactivation

-In axon terminal
-There is recycling of vesicles
-Moderate action potentials (activation)
-Reuptake or ezymatic degradation (deactivation)

25

What are the features of neuropeptides?

In terms of:
-Synthesis
-Recycling of vesicles
-Activation
-Deactivation

-In cell body; requires transplant
-There is no recycling of vesicles
-High action potential frequency (activation)
-Diffusion away from the synapse or enzymatic degradation (deactivation)