Neuroanatomy and the Evolution of Nervous System Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neuroanatomy and the Evolution of Nervous System Deck (166)
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A plane that separates the body or structure into upper and lower parts is called a _______

Transverse plane.
Transverse planes travel “across” the body in a horizontal direction, dividing it into upper (superior) and lower (inferior) parts. This is the only type of horizontal plane.


A plane that separates the body into a front (anterior) and back (posterior) part is called a _____

Frontal plane.
Anterior means toward the front. Frontal planes, also called coronal planes, run vertically (top to bottom) and divide the body into anterior and posterior sections.


A plane that separates the body or structure into right and left parts down the body’s midline is called a _____

Midsagittal/median plane.
A sagittal plane is any plane that runs vertically and separates the body or structure into a right and left part. Sagittal planes that run down the exact midline of the body are called midsagittal planes or median planes.
*You can remember this plane by visualizing the sagittal suture on the skull. Parasagittal planes divide the body into uneven parts.


A plane that separates the body into parts that are neither perfectly vertical nor horizontal is called a _____

Oblique plane.
Oblique planes can be any angle other than a perfect 90 degree angle. You can remember this by remembering that “obliques are odd” angles that are neither vertical nor horizontal. Also, your oblique muscles come down at an angle toward your abdominal muscles.


Which option below provides the best summary of the four types of body planes?

a. Two are vertical, one is horizontal, and one is any odd angle.
b. Two are horizontal, one is vertical, and one is any odd angle.
c. All planes are horizontal.
d. All planes are vertical.

Two are vertical (frontal and sagittal), one is horizontal (transverse), and one is any odd angle (obliques). Remember the acronym “soft” to remember the four major body planes.


A plane that runs from top to bottom (vertical), dividing the body into unequal left and right parts is called a _____

Parasagittal plane.
A parasagittal plane is any plane that divides the body into left and right sides that are unequal. A sagittal plane that divides the body right down the midline is called a midsagittal plane or median plane


Frontal planes are also called _____

Coronal planes.


Transverse plane can also be called _____

Horizontal planes


Nervous system is protected by _____ and _____?

Meninges and CSF


The cerebellum is ______

a. is a part of the hindbrain;
b. is a part of the midbrain;
c. controls coordinated motor movement;
d. both alternatives a and c above are correct;
e. both alternatives b and c above are correct;



Melissa is having difficulties staying awake during the day and sleeping through the night. Her difficulties are most likely due to problems in the ______.

a. cerebellum
b. hindbrain
c. midbrain
d. forebrain
e. none of the alternatives is correct

the sleep-wake cycle is controlled by the nuclei found in the brainstem and pons of the hindbrain


The part of the brainstem that controls our ability to shift our gaze toward (or orient to) important events in our environment is the _____



Even the most primitive of animal brains has a _____.

The hindbrain was the earliest portion of the CNS to evolve


The part of the hindbrain that controls breathing, heartrate, and other cardiovascular functions is the _____.

Medulla and Pons


Which of the following structures are not included in the forebrain?

a. thalamus
b. hypothalamus
c. limbic system
d. cerebellum
e. cerebral cortex



Which main division of the central nervous system is the most highly evolved and has the most complex structure and function?



Superior (above) is to inferior (below) as _____.

a. cerebellum is to cerebral cortex
b. midbrain is to forebrain
c. cerebral cortex is to hindbrain
d. hindbrain is to midbrain
e. medulla to thalamus

cerebral cortex is located superior to the hindbrain


Human thought, emotions, and complex behaviors are controlled by the

Cerebral cortex


Primary somatosensory cortex is _____.

a. located in the frontal lobe
b. located just posterior to the lateral fissure
c. located in the temporal lobe
d. allows us to locate where we are being touched
e. allows us to control the muscles of our bodies



Primary auditory cortex is located ____

Located both in the temporal and below the lateral fissure


Information from all sense of modalities integrated within the ______

Parietal lobe


Control of movement occurs within ______.

a. temporal lobe
b. occipital lobe
c. parietal lobe
d. frontal lobe
e. central fissure



Primary motor cortex is located ____

Located infront of the central fissure


Occipital lobe is involved in the perceptual processing of ____ information



The _____ forms a boundary between the temporal and parietal lobes

Lateral fissure


The temporal lobe is located at _____

- the location of primary auditory cortex
- below the parietal lobe
- below the frontal lobe
- infront of the occipital lobe


Primary visual cortex is located at _____

Located in the occipital lobe


Which direction is superior facing?

Toward the head (upper or above)


What are the structures of the Brainstem?

Raphe Nuclei and Locus Coeruleus


What are the structures of hindbrain

Medulla, pons and cerebellum