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Flashcards in Neurophysiology Deck (81)
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1

Which type of filament is involved with the development of AD?

Microtubules

2

Von Economo neurons are a type of ________ neuron.

Bipolar Neuron

3

What is the correct sequence of events that occurs once a neuron’s threshold for forming an action potential is reached?

a. sodium enters the neuron, followed by potassium leaving the neuron
b. sodium enters the neuron at the same time that potassium leaves the neuron
c. potassium enters the neuron, followed by sodium leaving the neuron
d. potassium enters the neuron at the same time that sodium leaves the neuron

(a)

4

The cell that underlies the activity of the entire nervous system is the _____.

Neuron. It is the fundamental functional unit of the nervous system

5

The physiological system that relays information in the form of electrochemical impulses throughout the body is called the _____.

Nervous system.

6

The portion of a neuron that carries outgoing messages to either a second neuron or a muscle or gland is called _____.

Axon

7

What is the functional difference of axon and dendrites?

Axon carries information away from the neuron whereas the dendrites carry information toward, not away from the neuron

8

The nucleus of a neuron is located within the ______

Soma

9

Fat containing cells that surround the axon of some neurons _______.

a. provide a protective covering
b. are the site of neurotransmitter production
c. receive messages from other neurons
d. slow down the rate of transmission
e. speed up the rate of transmission

(e)

10

Each neuron has how many axon(s)?

One

11

What are the multiple branches of a neuron that increase the cell’s ability to receive incoming information?

Dendrites. They are branches of the neuron that increase surface area for incoming information

12

The portion of a neuron that forms the presynaptic neuronal membrane is called the _____.

The presynaptic neuronal membrane is formed by the terminal button of the axon

13

Electrochemical communication takes place between neurons at a junction is called _____.

Synapse

14

The functions of a neuron is to _____ information.

a. receive
b. process
c. integrate
d. send
e. all of the above

(e)

15

The resting potential refers to the _____.

Stable, negative charge of an inactive neuron

16

The _____ is a brief wave of electrical charge that sweeps down the axon of a neuron

Action potential

17

What occurs when the sodium channels on the axons open?

An action potential

18

The neuronal impulse is an _____.

all-or-none phenomenon response to stimulation of sufficient strength.

19

The neuron has a semipermeable membrane, with sodium generally outside the membrane. This situation describes _____.

Resting potential. Concentration of sodium is greater outside the neuronal membrane when the neuron is at rest

20

What are ions?

Ions are electrically-charged particles that can be used to create batteries and that underlie both the resting and action potentials associated with neuronal function

21

A period after an action potential when a neuron will not fire again no matter how strong the incoming signal may be is called the ______

Absolute refractory period

22

What happens when a neuron is polarised?

During polarization or rest, the charge is negative inside relative to the outside

23

When the electrical charge inside a neuron is positive relative to the outside of the neuron it is in a state of______

Action potential

24

Define and describe the resting potential of a neuron.

Resting potential if a neuron is a state of polarization, -70mV in magnitude, that is due to a greater positive charge on the outside of the neuron relative to the inside of the neuron

25

Serotonin is a(n) _______ .

a. indoleamine and a monoamine
b. catecholamine and a monoamine
c. amino acid neurotransmitter
d. neuropeptide neurotransmitter
e. byproduct of ATP

(a)

26

What are the primary supporting cells of the CNS?

Macroglia (astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, Schwann cells)
Microglia

27

What is astrocyte located at and what are their functions?

CNS
They provide structural and nutritional support for neurons
Isolation of the synapse
Debris clean up
Blood-brain barrier (prevents viruses in the bloodstream from entering into the CNS)
Participates in chemical signalling

28

Where is oligodendrocyte located at and what are their functions?

CNS
Myelination of axons (could provide myelination for about 15 different neurons on multiple segments of the axon)
Contributes to the structural stability of the brain and spinal cord

29

Where is Schwann Cells located at and what are their functions?

PNS
Provides myelination of axons (one Schwann cells would only provide a single myelination on one axon)
Facilitates the regrowth of damaged axons (any damage to the PNS is reversible)

30

Where is the microglia located at and what are their functions?

CNS
Responsible for debris clean-up