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Flashcards in Bio 102 lab Deck (40):
1

dissecting microscope

used to observe and/or dissect specimens at low magnifications and in 3D

2

compound microscope

used to observe objects at much higher magnifications and is used to observe thin specimens mounted on glass slides (2D)

3

electron microscope

use focused beams of electrons to view images, allow scientists to observe very ting specimens

4

magnification

ability to enlarge the image of an object

5

resolution

ability to distinguish two or more closely spaced objects

6

parts of a microscope

ocular lens, head, arm, stage, stage controls, course adjustment knob, fine adjustment knob, on/off switch, base, substage light, disk diaphragm, objective lenses, revolving nose piece

7

magnification of object

ocular lens (10x) times the objective lens (4, 10, 40x)

8

three rules of microscopy

1) always start on low power
2) always look from the side at your objective lens when changing from one power to another
3) use only the fine adjustment knob when using the longest objective lens

9

basic characteristics that all cells have in common

1) cells are self-contained, surrounded by a plasma membrane
2) inside the membrane is the cytoplasm
3) cells of living organisms also contain DNA

10

eukaryotic cells

have their DNA organized and packaged in multiple linear chromosomes

11

plastids

plant cell organelles that carry out specialized functions, such as storage of starch and photosynthesis

12

prokaryotic cells

far more simple in structure and organization than eukaryotic, DNA is organized into one circular chromosome

13

three domains

archaea, bacteria, eukarya

14

cytoplasmic streaming

flowing of cytoplasm in eukaryotic cells, movement distributes materials within cells more quickly

15

protists

include a wide array of eukaryotic organisms

16

scientific method

1) devis a question about the observed system (research question)
2) define variables
3) define treatments
4) devise hypothesis
5) devise experiment
6) perform experiment and collect data
7) analyze data

17

independent variable

the factor that is being manipulated

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dependent variable

the factor that shows a response to the manipulations of the independent variable

19

standardized variables

all the variables that are held constant between the treatments

20

treatment group

a group that is subjected to the same level of the independent variable?

21

control group

the group that typically has the independent variable removed

22

null hypothesis

there will be no change (hypothesis= "will have effect/change)

23

if the p value is low (less than .05)

reject the null

24

if the p value is high (greater than .05)

cannot reject the null

25

experimental design

1) use adequate replication
2) you can't make up for a small number of individuals by having each person perform more tests
3) avoid bias

26

descriptive statistics

mean= average, range= highest number minus the lowest number, standard deviation= use calculator (to determine significance of outliers

27

student t-test

to find critical valur (p value)

28

active transport

substances actively move through the cell membrane, requires an input of energy

29

passive transport

diffusion, does not require energy

30

diffusion

dispersion of substances from areas of higher concentration to lower concentration

31

facilitated diffusion

requires a specific membrane protein for diffusion to occur

32

osmosis

diffusion of water

33

solution

a solute if dissolved in a solvent

34

hypotonic solution

has less solutes than the solution to which it is being compared

35

hypertonic solution

hass more solutes than the solution to which it is being compared

36

isotonic

solutions have equal amounts of solutes

37

catalysts

compounds that speed up the rate of chemical reactions without being used up or altered themselves during the reaction

38

substrate

the material with which the enzyme reacts, modified during reaction to form product

39

optimal activity

optimal enzyme function in a narrow range of temperature and ph values

40

enzyme specificity

specific enzymes only can react with specific substrate to create specific products