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Flashcards in BIO220 Lecture 12 Deck (50)
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1

total DNA =

genome

2

genome is composed of...

- mitochondria DNA
- chloroplasts (plants)
- sex chromosomes
- autosomes

3

Sex chromosomes of humans is same as which organism? What is it?

fruit flies
males: XY
females: XX

4

Sex chromosomes of birds, lepidoptera...

male: ZZ
female: WZ

5

lepidoptera

moths, butterflies, etc.

6

autosomes are divided into...

- high recombination
- low recombination

7

examples of things that are uniparentially inherited

- mt (mitochondria genome)
- Y chromosome

8

mt genome is inherited from...

mom

9

areas of low recombination will be inherited as ___, while areas of high recombination will be inherited ____

a unit

independently (broken up by recombination)

10

What do we use to infer contributions of both parents?

regions of the genome that are inherited biparentally

11

What can we use to infer contributions of 1 parent?

- Y chrom for dad
- mt chrom for mom

12

____ can be used to understand patterns in genetic data

data about behaviour & ecology

13

___ can be used to understand the evolutionary process

genetic markers

14

elephant social groups are composed of...

females & juveniles

15

what do male elephants do when they mature?

leave their natal group, but do not join other social groups either

16

What happens when male elephants want to breed?

They go back to their natal group

17

Do elephants avoid inbreeding? Why?

yes, because inbreeding depression is severe

18

How can we measure inbreeding depression / fitness in elephants?

genetic markers

19

Why are direct experiments on elephants not done?

Long gestation period & lifespan

20

When we use genetic markers to get data that cannot be measured by direct experiments, this is called...

inferential approach

21

Do elephants mate with their kin? What does this mean?

No, not even distantly related ones. There is a high cost for inbreeding depression.

22

Which mating behaviours were observed with elephants?

- following
- guarding
- copulating
- siring offspring

23

Do female elephants have a say in inbreeding?

Probably, but it is hard to assess

24

Do male elephants fight for mates? What does this suggest?

Yes, may be death battles
cost of fighting < benefit of having inbred kids

25

define: ecotype

a distinct form or race of a plant or animal species occupying a particular habitat

26

possible reasons why some wolves might migrate while others don't

1. different ecotypes (genetic)
2. ecological forces

27

What test is used for elephant genetics?

litmus test

28

Which habitats are in Canada's North? What are they separated by?

- tundra
- taiga
- boreal coniferous forest

separated by treeline

29

Which wolves migrate and which don't?

Northern ones migrate
Southern ones do not

30

What was used to quantify genetic differentiation in wolves?

F_st
1 = complete differentiation
0 = no differentiation