Flashcards in BIO220 Lecture 12 Deck (50):
total DNA =
genome is composed of...
- mitochondria DNA
- chloroplasts (plants)
- sex chromosomes
Sex chromosomes of humans is same as which organism? What is it?
Sex chromosomes of birds, lepidoptera...
moths, butterflies, etc.
autosomes are divided into...
- high recombination
- low recombination
examples of things that are uniparentially inherited
- mt (mitochondria genome)
- Y chromosome
mt genome is inherited from...
areas of low recombination will be inherited as ___, while areas of high recombination will be inherited ____
independently (broken up by recombination)
What do we use to infer contributions of both parents?
regions of the genome that are inherited biparentally
What can we use to infer contributions of 1 parent?
- Y chrom for dad
- mt chrom for mom
____ can be used to understand patterns in genetic data
data about behaviour & ecology
___ can be used to understand the evolutionary process
elephant social groups are composed of...
females & juveniles
what do male elephants do when they mature?
leave their natal group, but do not join other social groups either
What happens when male elephants want to breed?
They go back to their natal group
Do elephants avoid inbreeding? Why?
yes, because inbreeding depression is severe
How can we measure inbreeding depression / fitness in elephants?
Why are direct experiments on elephants not done?
Long gestation period & lifespan
When we use genetic markers to get data that cannot be measured by direct experiments, this is called...
Do elephants mate with their kin? What does this mean?
No, not even distantly related ones. There is a high cost for inbreeding depression.
Which mating behaviours were observed with elephants?
- siring offspring
Do female elephants have a say in inbreeding?
Probably, but it is hard to assess
Do male elephants fight for mates? What does this suggest?
Yes, may be death battles
cost of fighting < benefit of having inbred kids
a distinct form or race of a plant or animal species occupying a particular habitat
possible reasons why some wolves might migrate while others don't
1. different ecotypes (genetic)
2. ecological forces
What test is used for elephant genetics?
Which habitats are in Canada's North? What are they separated by?
- boreal coniferous forest
separated by treeline
Which wolves migrate and which don't?
Northern ones migrate
Southern ones do not
What was used to quantify genetic differentiation in wolves?
1 = complete differentiation
0 = no differentiation
What did microsatellite analysis of wolf populations show?
microsatellite loci / alleles clustered together
- shows distinct spatial separation
- there is genetic differentiation between the 2 groups
Fst of mtDNA vs. Fst of Y chrom & autosomes
mtDNA = 0.28
Y-chrom = 0.03
What ecological forces may have led to differentiation in migrating behaviour?
caribou migration (prey for wolves)
Northern wolves follow caribou south in the winter
Why do southern wolves not follow caribou?
prey on deer, moose, elk, non-migratory caribou
- southern wolves are territorial
Which habitat do southern wolves reside?
boreal coniferous forest
When does wolf mating happen?
during Feb / March (when Northern wolves go to the south to feed)
What determines if wolf pups are migratory or territorial?
follows the natal pack
why is there such a big difference between the Fst of maternal & other markers?
Pups follow what the mom does (natal pack), so measuring the mtDNA will give big differences between North & South.
Other markers are not affected, so would be about 50:50 in North vs. South
what leads to migration of caribou?
patterns of differentiation depend on...
____ determines transmission of different types of markers
An organism's genome will be a mosaic of...
relatedness & differentiation
- high mtDNA variation within a population
- low mtDNA variation between populations
- low Y-STR variation within a population
- high Y-STR variation between populations
- high Y-STR variation within a population
- low Y-STR variation between populations
- low mtDNA variation within a population
- high mtDNA variation between populations
when males move, there is...
more variation of Y-STR
when females move, there is...
more variation of mtDNA
reduced genetic diversity is carried by the sex that...
stays with natal group
___ is used in long-lived organisms to infer fitness & evolutionary process
To understand the migratory behaviour of wolves, we need to combine...
- knowledge of how genome is transmitted
- knowledge of behaviour