BIO220 Lecture 12 Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in BIO220 Lecture 12 Deck (50):
1

total DNA =

genome

2

genome is composed of...

- mitochondria DNA
- chloroplasts (plants)
- sex chromosomes
- autosomes

3

Sex chromosomes of humans is same as which organism? What is it?

fruit flies
males: XY
females: XX

4

Sex chromosomes of birds, lepidoptera...

male: ZZ
female: WZ

5

lepidoptera

moths, butterflies, etc.

6

autosomes are divided into...

- high recombination
- low recombination

7

examples of things that are uniparentially inherited

- mt (mitochondria genome)
- Y chromosome

8

mt genome is inherited from...

mom

9

areas of low recombination will be inherited as ___, while areas of high recombination will be inherited ____

a unit

independently (broken up by recombination)

10

What do we use to infer contributions of both parents?

regions of the genome that are inherited biparentally

11

What can we use to infer contributions of 1 parent?

- Y chrom for dad
- mt chrom for mom

12

____ can be used to understand patterns in genetic data

data about behaviour & ecology

13

___ can be used to understand the evolutionary process

genetic markers

14

elephant social groups are composed of...

females & juveniles

15

what do male elephants do when they mature?

leave their natal group, but do not join other social groups either

16

What happens when male elephants want to breed?

They go back to their natal group

17

Do elephants avoid inbreeding? Why?

yes, because inbreeding depression is severe

18

How can we measure inbreeding depression / fitness in elephants?

genetic markers

19

Why are direct experiments on elephants not done?

Long gestation period & lifespan

20

When we use genetic markers to get data that cannot be measured by direct experiments, this is called...

inferential approach

21

Do elephants mate with their kin? What does this mean?

No, not even distantly related ones. There is a high cost for inbreeding depression.

22

Which mating behaviours were observed with elephants?

- following
- guarding
- copulating
- siring offspring

23

Do female elephants have a say in inbreeding?

Probably, but it is hard to assess

24

Do male elephants fight for mates? What does this suggest?

Yes, may be death battles
cost of fighting < benefit of having inbred kids

25

define: ecotype

a distinct form or race of a plant or animal species occupying a particular habitat

26

possible reasons why some wolves might migrate while others don't

1. different ecotypes (genetic)
2. ecological forces

27

What test is used for elephant genetics?

litmus test

28

Which habitats are in Canada's North? What are they separated by?

- tundra
- taiga
- boreal coniferous forest

separated by treeline

29

Which wolves migrate and which don't?

Northern ones migrate
Southern ones do not

30

What was used to quantify genetic differentiation in wolves?

F_st
1 = complete differentiation
0 = no differentiation

31

What did microsatellite analysis of wolf populations show?

microsatellite loci / alleles clustered together
- shows distinct spatial separation
- there is genetic differentiation between the 2 groups

32

Fst of mtDNA vs. Fst of Y chrom & autosomes

mtDNA = 0.28
Y-chrom = 0.03

33

What ecological forces may have led to differentiation in migrating behaviour?

caribou migration (prey for wolves)

Northern wolves follow caribou south in the winter

34

Why do southern wolves not follow caribou?

prey on deer, moose, elk, non-migratory caribou
- southern wolves are territorial

35

Which habitat do southern wolves reside?

boreal coniferous forest

36

When does wolf mating happen?

during Feb / March (when Northern wolves go to the south to feed)

37

What determines if wolf pups are migratory or territorial?

follows the natal pack

38

why is there such a big difference between the Fst of maternal & other markers?

Pups follow what the mom does (natal pack), so measuring the mtDNA will give big differences between North & South.

Other markers are not affected, so would be about 50:50 in North vs. South

39

what leads to migration of caribou?

seasonal variation

40

patterns of differentiation depend on...

genetic systems

41

____ determines transmission of different types of markers

behaviour

42

An organism's genome will be a mosaic of...

relatedness & differentiation

43

Patrilocality causes...

- high mtDNA variation within a population
- low mtDNA variation between populations
- low Y-STR variation within a population
- high Y-STR variation between populations

44

Matrilocality causes...

- high Y-STR variation within a population
- low Y-STR variation between populations
- low mtDNA variation within a population
- high mtDNA variation between populations

45

when males move, there is...

more variation of Y-STR

46

when females move, there is...

more variation of mtDNA

47

reduced genetic diversity is carried by the sex that...

stays with natal group

48

___ is used in long-lived organisms to infer fitness & evolutionary process

genetic markers

49

To understand the migratory behaviour of wolves, we need to combine...

- knowledge of how genome is transmitted
- knowledge of behaviour

50

Human social behaviour will affect...

- patterns of genetic differentiation
- diversity among and w/in populations