Flashcards in BIO220 Lecture 20 Deck (61)
Right now, we are in the ___ period
- last 2.68 million years
- ice age with alternating glacial & interglacial periods
Humans emerged ___ years ago
Agriculture is a ____ phenomenon, which appeared in the last ___ years. This means that it appeared in a ___ period.
post-glacial (Holocene epoch);
we are currently living in the ___ epoch of the quaternary period
early humans evolved & migrated as...
One theory of ____ states that __ and homo sapiens are very similar
hominid evolution and dispersal;
What was the last area to be colonized by homo sapiens?
Why are fruits good foods?
They are supposed to be eaten (by animals for dispersal)
Why are seeds & tubers good food?
energy-storing organs (complex carbs & sugars)
Humans are not adapted for eating plant foods. The foods that we eat has to be...
- high nutritional quality
- less defended
___ selection was used to make plants more edible
agriculture evolved ___
independently in different areas
cultural component of agriculture
societies have to learn (from older generation) how to store seeds, weed, plant...
lentils have symbiotic relationship with ___ to get ___
legumes are good sources of...
which kind of seeds are best for humans? for plants?
humans: seeds that don't shatter because they are easier to collect
plants: seeds that shatter so it disperses genetic material
grasses that we eat
legumes that we eat
- chick peas
fruits that we eat
What are key evolution innovations for grass agriculture?
- non-shattering seed heads
- amylase evolution
ancient agriculture innovations
- fish net
- irrigation channels
- domestication (-> evolution of lactose tolerance)
- crop rotation, draft animals (Middle Age)
- exchange of crops, animals, technology (1492)
- no more nomadism
sedentary culture lead to the development of...
Limits of primitive agriculture
- limited area for growth (temperature > water > NPK)
- edaphic (soil) factors: moisture, fertility
- planting same things in same area -> insects, disease, bad yield
seeds that fall too close to adult tree will die due to established predators in that area
- keeps too many of the same species growing in the same area
The first population boom lead to...
who made artificial fertilizers?
John Bennet Lawes of Rothamsted (different concentrations of N, P, K, Mg)
How was edaphic factors solved by agricultural sciences?
add things to soil to replenish lost nutrients
- fertilizer (chemicals)
- animal poop add N (organic)
Where do organic fertilizers & chemical fertilizers differ?
organic matters will also affect soil texture & water retaining qualities, but chemical ones won't