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Flashcards in BIO220 Lecture 20 Deck (61)
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1

Right now, we are in the ___ period

quaternary

2

Quanternary period

- last 2.68 million years
- ice age with alternating glacial & interglacial periods

3

Humans emerged ___ years ago

2 million

4

Agriculture is a ____ phenomenon, which appeared in the last ___ years. This means that it appeared in a ___ period.

post-glacial (Holocene epoch);
10 000;
inter-glacial

5

we are currently living in the ___ epoch of the quaternary period

Holocene

6

early humans evolved & migrated as...

hunter/gatherers

7

One theory of ____ states that __ and homo sapiens are very similar

hominid evolution and dispersal;
Neanderthals

8

What was the last area to be colonized by homo sapiens?

Americas

9

Why are fruits good foods?

They are supposed to be eaten (by animals for dispersal)

10

Why are seeds & tubers good food?

energy-storing organs (complex carbs & sugars)

11

Humans are not adapted for eating plant foods. The foods that we eat has to be...

- high nutritional quality
- less defended

12

___ selection was used to make plants more edible

artificial

13

agriculture evolved ___

independently in different areas

14

cultural component of agriculture

societies have to learn (from older generation) how to store seeds, weed, plant...

15

lentils have symbiotic relationship with ___ to get ___

bacteria;
nitrogen

16

legumes are good sources of...

plant protein

17

which kind of seeds are best for humans? for plants?

humans: seeds that don't shatter because they are easier to collect

plants: seeds that shatter so it disperses genetic material

18

grasses that we eat

- wheat
- rice
- maize
- barley

19

legumes that we eat

- beans
- lentils
- chick peas

20

fruits that we eat

- tomatoes
- squash

21

What are key evolution innovations for grass agriculture?

- non-shattering seed heads
- amylase evolution

22

ancient agriculture innovations

- fish net
- irrigation channels
- domestication (-> evolution of lactose tolerance)
- plows
- crop rotation, draft animals (Middle Age)
- exchange of crops, animals, technology (1492)
- no more nomadism

23

sedentary culture lead to the development of...

- cities
- agriculture

24

Limits of primitive agriculture

- limited area for growth (temperature > water > NPK)
- edaphic (soil) factors: moisture, fertility
- planting same things in same area -> insects, disease, bad yield

25

Janzen-Connell hypothesis

seeds that fall too close to adult tree will die due to established predators in that area
- keeps too many of the same species growing in the same area

26

The first population boom lead to...

famines

27

who made artificial fertilizers?

John Bennet Lawes of Rothamsted (different concentrations of N, P, K, Mg)

28

How was edaphic factors solved by agricultural sciences?

add things to soil to replenish lost nutrients
- fertilizer (chemicals)
- animal poop add N (organic)

29

Where do organic fertilizers & chemical fertilizers differ?

organic matters will also affect soil texture & water retaining qualities, but chemical ones won't

30

which chemical fertilizers had the best effect?

- nitrates
- ammonia