BioChem 2.3 Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in BioChem 2.3 Carbohydrates Deck (18)
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Draw a diagram of two sugars forming maltose.

Maltose is disaccharide created through the condensation of two alpha glucose which are bonded through a glycosidic bond.


How is sucrose formed?

Sucrose is a disaccharide formed through two monosaccharides, glucose and fructose.


How is lactose formed?

Lactose is a disaccharide formed through two monosaccharides, galactose and glucose.


How is maltose formed?

Maltose is formed through two alpha glucose.


What are some structures of starch?

Starch is polysaccharide of alpha glucose which comes in the form of amylose and amylopectin together.



What does amylose look like?

Amylose is a chain of alpha glucose bonds which is spiralled.


What does amylopectin look like?

Amylopectin is similarly to amylose made of alpha glucose but it branched.


How is cellulose formed?

Cellulose is polysaccharide made of a chain of beta glucose. It serves as a material to form plant cell walls.


What does glycogen look like and what is it used for?

Glycogen is very similar to amylopectin and is therefore made of alpha glucose. It is more branched. It serves as an energy source in human liver and muscles.


What is the difference between a saturated and unsaturated fatty acid?

Unsaturated fatty acids have double carbon-carbon bonds. This makes them bend.


What is the difference between monounsaturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids?

Monounsaturated fatty acids only have one double carbon-carbon bond. Polyunsaturated fatty acids have 2 or more double carbon-carbon bonds.


What kind of carbohydrates are cis and trans associated with?

Cis and trans are structures of unsaturated fatty acids.


Draw a molecular diagram of a cis unsaturated fatty acid

Cis resembles a C meaning that it curves back.


Draw a molecular diagram of a trans unsaturated fatty acid.

Trans is a nonpolar molecule, this makes the fatty acid a kink but stay relatively linear


How is triglyceride formed?

Triglyceride is formed through 3 fatty acids and a glycerol. The fatty acids attach themselves through condensation reaction which gives water as a byproduct


Explain how to find out your BMI

1. Measure your mass with a scale in kg 2.Measure your height with a tape in meters 3. Divide your mass by your height squared => BMI = weight/ (height)^2


Distinguish the differences of using lipids and carbohydrates as an energy source. 

  • Lipids are more suitable for long term energy storage. Carbohydrates are more suitable for short term energy storage. 
  • Lipids release double the amount of energy with the same amount of grams as carbohydrates. Carbohydrates release much less energy copared to lipids. 
  • Lipids are stored in specialized cells such as triglycerides in adipose. Carbohydrates are stored in muscle tissues and the liver. This makes lipids more readily stored than carbohydrates.
  • Lipids take longer to break down. Glycogen is easier and faster to break down into glucose. 


How can trans fats and saturated fatty acids affect our health?

  • There is a high correlation that a high intake of trans fats and saturated fatty acids.
  • This is due to the fact that trans fats and saturated fatty acids can stack on each other and clot up blood vessels.