How can living organisms release energy?
Release of energy occurs by cell respiration
What is cell respiration?
Cell respiration is the controlled released of energy from organic compounds to produce ATP
Where do human derive their energy from?
Energy comes from broken down organic compounds we gain from food. Also use: - carbohydrates - lipids - proteins (sometimes)
What do plants use for cell respiration?
Carbohydrates or lipids (made by photosynthesis)
How is glucose turned into energy? What is this process called?
Glucose and oxygen (breakdown through burning) makes energy This is called aerobic respiration
How can the conversion into energy be usable?
Cell respiration uses Enzymes to control that energy released is retained in a usable form/immidiately available form, called ATP
How is ATP made?
A phosphate group has to be liked to ADP. This reaction requires energy that comes from the break down of organic compounds
Give an example of cell respiration?
Energy is released in muscle fibres by breaking down glucose into CO2 and H2O The energy can then be used for muscle contraction
Is ATP transferred from cell to cell?
No. All cells require a continuous supply. (this is why they are so essential)
What is a cell's source of energy?
ATP from cell respiration is IMMEDIATELY available as a source of energy.
Why do cells require energy?
- Synthesizing large molecules like DNA, RNA and proteins - (Active membrane transport) pumping molecules or ions across membrane by active transport - moving things around inside of the cell, such as chromosomes, vesicles, protein fibres (for muscle contraction)
Why do cells require a continual source of ATP?
ATP --> Heat Energy --> Lost to environment
What occurs during anaerobic respiration?
Glucose is broken down in the cytoplasm WITHOUT using any oxygen
Does anaerobic cell respiration produce a lot of yield?
Anaerobic respiration gives small yield of ATP from glucose, but ATP can be produced QUICKLY
When is anaerobic respiration useful?
- When a short but rapid burst of ATP production is needed - when oxygen supplies run out in respiring cells - in environments that are deficient in oxygen (e.g. water logged soils)
What are the products of anaerobic respiration in animals/humans?
Glucose -> lactic acid (usually in dissolved form called lactate)
What are the products of anaerobic respiration in plants?
In yeast/plants, glucose -> ethanol and CO2
Why is aerobic respiration more used than anaerobic?
Anaerobic only gives a very small yield and the products (lactate and ethanol) are TOXIC in excess and must be REMOVED from cells or be produced in LIMITED quanities
Where does this occur? & What kind of respiration?
Animals/Humans for anaerobic respiration
Where does this occur? & what kind of respiration?
Occurs in Yeasts and plants for anaerobic respiration
How is bioethanol produced?
Produced from sugar cane/corn using yeast which converts the sugar into ethanol by anaerobic respiration
As only sugars can be converted, starch and cellulose have to be broke down using enzymes.
Ethanol from yeasts has to be purified
When is the lactate production in humans used?
Lactate production in humans when anaerobic respiration is used to maximize the power of muscle contraction (running/weight lifting)
What cell respiration requires oxygen?
Aerobic respirtation requires oxygen
How much yield does aerobic respiration produce?
Gives a large yield of ATP as glucose can be fully broken down
What are the byproducts of aerobic respiration?
CO2 and Water
Where does aerobic respiration occur?
Insude of the mitochondrion
What process is this?