BioChem 2.6 DNA and RNA Structure Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in BioChem 2.6 DNA and RNA Structure Deck (16)
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1

What is the name of the structure of DNA?

DNA consists of many nucleotides. This is called a polynucleotide.

2

How are DNA polynucleotide monomers linked?

DNA polynucleotide monomers are linked together by covalent bonds into single strand DNA polymers.

3

Draw a labelled diagram of single DNA Nucleotide.

Composed of deoxyribose sugar, nitrogenous bases and phosphorus group.

 

4

What are the 4 different nitrogenous bases for DNA?

A - Adenine G - Guanine T - Thymine C - Cytosine (Always go to chemistry)

5

What nitrogenous base is complementary to Adenine?

Adenine is complementary to Thymine. Double Hydrogen Bond.

6

What nitrogenous base is complementary to Cytosine?

Cytosine is complementary to Guanine. Triple Hydrogen Bond.

7

What are the base pairing rules?

Adenine double bond Thymine Cytosine triple bond Guanine

8

Which nitrogenous bases are Purines?

Adenine and Guanine are purines.

9

Which nitrogenous bases are pyrimidine?

Thymine and Cytosine are pyrimidine.

10

Draw a structure of DNA with 6 DNA nucleotides.

DNA strands are antiparallel to form a double helix. Include: - Sugar phosphate backbone - complementary base pairs - Hydrogen bases between bases of two strands (dotted line)

11

What is the general structure of a DNA polynucleotide?

a DNA polynucleotide is a double stranded helix. The DNA strands are antiparallel linked by hydrogen bonds between the complementary nitrogenous base pairs.

12

Describe the structure of RNA.

RNA is a polynucleotide. RNA nucleotide monomers are linked together by covalent bonds into single stranded DNA polymers.

13

What are RNA nucleotides composed of?

RNA nucleotides are composed of ribose, one sugar phosphate group and a nitrogenous base.

14

What are the RNA complementary base pairing rules?

Adenine and Uracil Cytosine and Guanine

15

Draw a labelled RNA polynucleotide

Include sugar phosphate backbone.

16

Compare the structures of DNA and RNA

Similarities:

  • Both have sugar phosphate groups
  • Both have nitrogenous bases
  • Both have pentose sugars
  • Both are poly nucleotides
  • Both have covalent bonds
  • Both have sugar phosphate backbones
  • Both have Adenine and Guanine as purines
  • Both store genetic information 

Differences:

  • DNA has deoxyribose. RNA has ribose
  • DNA is a double helix and is therfore double stranded. RNA is single stranded
  • DNA must have hydrogen bonds between the nitrogen bases. RNA is mainly covalently bonded and only occasionally has hydrogen bonds. 
  • DNA has Thymine and Cytosine as pyrimidines. RNA has Uracil and Cytosine as pyrimidines. 
  • DNA has an anti-parallel structure. RNA with only one strand has only one direction. 5' to 3'