BioChem 2.1 Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in BioChem 2.1 Carbohydrates Deck (30)
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1

Which elements make up carbohydrates?

CHO - Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

2

Which elements make up Proteins?

CHON - Amino acid: Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen and Nitrogen

3

What elements make up Lipids?

CHO - Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen

4

What elements make up DNA?

CHOP - Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Phosphate

5

What is the definition of inorganic chemicals?

Mineral compounds such as salts, i.e. sodium chloride, potassium sulphate, ammonium nitrate, etc.

6

What is the definition of organic chemicals?

Carbon based molecules found in living organisms.

7

What are some exceptions of organic chemicals?

These carbon based molecules are found in living organisms but are considered inorganic: Carbon Monoxide Carbon Dioxide Carbonates Hydrogen Carbonates

8

Is it possible to produce organic chemicals without use of living organisms?

Friedrich Wöhler has proven that you can artificially make urea in laboratory. As Urea is an organic matter, you can produce organic matter with inorganic matter without vital force.

9

Draw a diagram of ribose.

Ribose is a pentose sugar. It is a monosaccharide.

 

10

Draw a diagram of alpha glucose.

Glucose is a hexose sugar. It is a monosaccharide.

11

Draw a diagram of beta glucose.

Glucose is a hexose sugar. It is a monosaccharide.

12

How is sucrose created?

Sucrose is disaccharide of glucose and fructose.

13

What is the difference between pentose and hexose?

Pentose is a sugar made of 5 carbon atoms while a hexose sugar has 6 carbon atoms

14

What is an example of a disaccharide?

Sucrose, Maltose, Lactose

15

What is a polysaccharide?

A Polysaccharide is a carbohydrate of a chain of many sugars which are for example starch or cellulose.

16

What is a glycosidic bond?

Glycosidic bond is formed between sugar molecules.

17

Draw and label a molecular diagram of a generalized amino acid.

Each amino acid contains: R group, carboxylic acid group, amino group, hydrogen atom and carbon atom in the middle.

18

How do amino acids join together?

Two amino acids bond to form a dipeptide. Amino acids join together through peptide bonds. This is a condensation reaction meaning it forms water as a by product.

19

What is a carbohydrate?

carbohydrates are organic compounds that contain one or more simple sugars.

20

What is a protein?

Large organic compounds made of a polypeptide of amino acids arranged in a linear shape.

21

Draw a molecular diagram of a saturated fatty acid.

Saturated lipids are linear, meaning they have no double carbon-carbon bonds.

22

What are examples of lipids?

Triglycerides, phospholipids and steroids.

23

Is this a carbohydrate, lipid or protein?

This is triglyceride which is a lipid.

24

Is this a carbohydrate, lipid or protein?

This is a phospholipid which is a lipid.

25

Is this a carbohydrate, lipid or protein?

This is a steroid which is a lipid.

26

What are some functions of lipids?

Lipids are used for electrical insulation, energy storage, plasma membrane (phospholipid and cholesterol) and thermal insulation.

27

Why are lipids surrounding our nerve cells?

Lipids a good electrical insulators as they do not conduct electricity.

28

What is metabolism?

Metabolism are the chemical reactions within the cell in its cytoplasm. It is the enzyme-catalyzed reactions in living organism.

29

What is anabolism?

Anabolism is the synthesis of small, simple molecules forming a complex compound. This includes the formation of macromolecules from monomers by condensation reaction.

30

What is catabolism?

Catabolism is the breakdown of complex compounds to small simple molecules. This includes the hydrolysis of macromolecules into monomers.