Flashcards in Biochem of Hypothalamus and Pituitary Deck (40)
what 2 hormones are stored in the posterior pituitary?
1. ADH- aka vasporessin (VP), arginine vasopressin (AVP)
what kind of hormones are hypothalamic hormones
peptide that are made in neurons and released via neurotransmitter-mechanism. they have coordinated pulsatile release, and are modified by proteolytic enzymes making them functional.
What domains make AVP and OT? Are their structures similar or very different?
both have very similar structures.
AVP- AVP domain, neurophysin II, glycopeptide
OT- Ot domain, neurophysin I
What are the vasporessin receptors and what are their 2nd messengers?
V1 and V2.
V1- on the smooth muscle vasculature and the anterior pituitary. Use IP3/DAG/Ca2+
V2- on the kidney and uses cAMP
what is the function of vasopressin?
kidney-- water resorption
smooth muscle vasculature-- vasoconstriction
anterior pituitary-- release of ACTH
**wants to decrease osmolality overall
what is the function of oxytocin?
mammary gland myoepithelium-- milk production
uterine myometrium--uterine contractions
What are the oxytocin receptors and their 2nd messengers?
V1 at both the uterine myometrium and the mammary gland myoepithelium. Both use IP3/DAG/Ca2+
How is vasopressin sensed and then stimulated?
increased osmolality is sensed by osmoreceptors in the brain. mechanoreceptors the change in shape of neurons (shrink after eating salty meal) and can activate secretion of vasopressin from posterior pituitary.
- can sense 2% increase in osmolality and 10-15% decrease in BP
What is the action of AVP on the kidney collecting ducts?
AVP binds to V2 receptor and causes premade auqaporin channels (AQP2) in vesicles to fuse to the luminal membrane and allow water to flow into the blood.
What activates renin-angiotensin cycle?
decreased blood volume. Leads to increased reabsorption of Na and water, increased excretion of K+.
What is one of the few positive feedback mechanisms?
What is the role of progesterone and estrogen in the release of oxytocin?
- increased progesterone inhibits release of OT
- increased estrogen increases release of OT by increasing the number of receptors in the uterine myometrium.
What is the clinical importance of oxytocin during birth?
OT increases during birth and plateau during breast feeding. After birth, mothers who directly breastfeed release for OT which also causes uterine contraction and can act as a natural tourniquet and stop uterine bleeding.
What is a cause of diabetes insipidus?
low vasporessin or inadequate utilization of vasporessin.
What are some physical causes of defective/deficient vasopressin (ADH)?
1. damage to the hypothalamus
2. tumor on the posterior pituitary stalk
3. any type of brain tumor interfering with hypothalamic secretion or production of ADH.
What are some genetic causes of defective/deficient vasopressin (ADH)?
1. neurogenic DI--problems with the neurophysin II
2. nephrogenic DI--mutation of the V2 receptor or mutation of the AQP2 channels
What hormones are produced by the hypothalamus?
What hormones are secreted by the anterior pituitary?
6. POMC which gives rise to ACTH and alpha MSH
Name the glycoprotein hormones of the anterior pituitary
*FSH, LH and hCG and gonadotropins
*TSH, FSH and LH are pituitary basophils
Which subunit conveys specificity of the hormone action among the glycoprotein hormones of the anterior pituitary?
the beta subunit. All have the same alpha subunit. beta gives each hormone its own specific action.
What hormones are cleaved from proopiomelanocortin (POMC)?
2. alpha MSH
what hormone cleaves hormones from POMC?
What are corticotropes?
Stain basophilic. Include POMC which is cleaved to ACTH, beta lipotrophic hormone, alpha-melanocyte stimulation hormone and B-endorphin. They stimulate cortisol synthesis in the adrenal gland and in excess can cause stimulation of melanin production in melanocytes
What are the pituitary somatotropes?
GH (stains acidophilic)
What are the pituitary lactotropes?
Prolactin (stains acidophilic)
What are the prolactin/growth hormone family?
have similar receptors and have both growth promoting functions as well as lactating functions. Include the pituitary somatotropes, pituitary lactotrope, and placental synchtiotroblasts.
What is Pit-1?
TF that is involved in the differentiation of thyrotropes, lactotropes and somatotropes. Involved in the expression of GH, PRL, and TSH.
What are the gonadotropes?
FSH and LH (stains basophilic)
What are the thyrotropes?
Thyrotropic hormone (stains basophilic)