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Flashcards in Vitamin Workshop Deck (36)
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What are the symptoms of a vitamin A deficiency?

- depressed immune response (esp measles)
- xeropthalmia
- night-blindness
- poor embryonic development
- thickening of the corneum (hyperkeratosis)


What is the function of Vitamin A?

- maintains all epithelial linings
- maintains the cornea
- night vision
- immune function
- bone metabolism
- hematopoiesis
- important for correct fetal development
- needed to form rhodopsin


What are the symptoms of a Vitamin D deficiency?

- minimal walking in children (rickets)
- osteomalacia in adults (softening of the bones), presents as muscle aches and pains.
- hypocalcemia can also present with tetany


What is the function of Vitamin D?

- maintains blood calcium and phosphate levels.
- enhances intestinal calcium, iron, magnesium, phosphate and zinc.
- bone strength


What are the symptoms of a Vitamin K deficiency?

- hemorrhagic disease in infants (intracranial and retroperitoneal bleeding)
- osteoporosis in adults (many bone fractures)


What is the function of Vitamin K?

- required for normal blood clotting.


What are the symptoms of Vitamin C deficiency?

- scurvy (fatigue, infections, dry hair and skin, bruising, poor wound healing, dental conditions, joint and muscle aches, mood changes, weight loss, anemia, nosebleeds, gingivitis)
- petechiae


What is the function of vitamin C?

- antioxidant
- necessary for hydroxylation of proline and lysine leading to increased H-bonds in collagen
- important for wound healing
- necessary for synthesis of dopamine-B-hydroxylase which converts dopamine to norepinephrine
- facilitates iron absorption (Fe2+ easier to reabsorb)


What are the symptoms of Vitamin E deficiency?

- common in those with fat malabsorption (duodenal switch)
- cause neuromuscular disorders and hemolysis
- spinocerebellar syndromes may present as ataxia
- hemolysis may lead to anemia


What is the function of Vitamin E?

- prevents oxidation of vitamin C and A (antioxidant!)
- protects polyunsaturated FA in membrane from free radical attacks
- protects RBC again hemolysis


What are the symptoms of Vitamin B6 deficiency?

seizures, rashes, cracked lips, mental disorders like depression and hyper-irritability


What is the function of Vitamin B6?

converted to PLP, cofactor for serotonin production, heme synthesis, niacin synthesis from Trp, nucleic acid synthesis


What are the symptoms of folate deficiency?

- elevated homocyteine levels, megaloblastic anemia, fatigue, weakness, SOB, neural tube defects, anencephaly, spinabifida


What are the functions of folate?

used to reduce FH4 and accepts single carbon fragments from donors (Ser, gly, his, trp) and transfers them to intermediates in AA and nucleic acid synthesis


What are the symptoms of B12 deficiency?

pernicious anemia (autoimmune), food bound B12 malabsoption, impaired methionine synthesis, impaired L-methylmalonyl-CoA, neurological damage to myelin sheet, Gi inflammation, impaired DNA synthesis


What are the functions of B12?

cofactor for both methionine synthase and methylmalonyl CoA mutase so involved in converting homocysteine to methionine (required for SAM which methylates DNA, RNA, proteins, lipids, etc)
- malonyl CoA mutase straights to malonyl CoA to succinyl CoA which can enter citric cycle and make energy. Also needed for hemoglobin synthesis


What are the symptoms of biotin deficiency?

hair loss, dermatitis (rash around eyes, nose mouth, genitals), muscle pain, depression, lethargy, hallucinations, numbness, tingling of extremities, insomnia


What are the functions of biotin?

- cofactor for carboxylase enzymes
- acetyl CoA carboxylase, pyruvate carboxylase, methlycrotonyl CoA carboxylase, propionyl CoA carboxylase


What are the symptoms of zinc deficiency?

white spots in fingernails, pale rough skin, dry hair, acne, unhealthy weight loss, loss of appetite, dandruff, slow wound healing, poor night vision, mood swings, frequent infections


Function of zinc?

anything that uses zinc finger


Iron deficiency?

anemia, fatigue, difficulty concentration and maintaining body temp, decreased immune function, glossitis, pica (eat dirt!)


Iron function?

- heme binds O2
- redox rnx in cellular respiration like ETC


Iodine deficiency?

goiter, mental retardation, cretinism, hypothyroidism symptoms


Iodine function?

thyroid hormone synthesis, immune function


Potassium deficiency?

weakness, fatigue, muscle cramping, GI distress, arrhythmia, abnormal EKG, kidney stones, increased bone turnover (brittle bones)


Potassium functions?

maintenance of neuronal and muscular membrane potentials. Cardiac rhythm and acid-base balance


Sodium deficiency?

hyponatremia resulting in drowsiness, fatigue, restlessness, headache, nausea, confusion, loss of consciousness or coma, muscle weakness/spasms, vomiting


Sodium functions?

maintains plasma osmolarity, membrane potential for neuronal and muscular action potentials, membrane transport mechanisms


B1 thiamine deficiency?

beriberi, resulting in confusion, loss of reflexes, difficulting walking, neropathy, tachycardia, dyspnea


B1 thiamine function?

TPP is cofactor for decarboxylations like pyruvate dehydrogenase, alpha-ketoglutarate dehydrogenase, transketolase, BCAA dehydrogenase