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Respiratory Tract Infections > Biochemistry > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (14)
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1

What is the CURB65 score?

Confusion
Urea >7mmol/l
RR >30breaths
BP (systolic <90mmHg or diastolic <60mmHg)
Age 65 or greater

0-1 = low severity
2 = moderate severity
3-5 = high severity

2

What is the NEWS2 score?

1.RR
2. O2 sats
3. Systolic BP
4. Pulse rate
5. Level of consciousness or new confusion
6. Temperature

The score can be increased by 2 for people requiring supplemental oxygen to maintain their recommended O2 sat.

3

What are URTIs?

- Common cold
- Sinusitis
- Pharyngitis
- Laryngitis

4

What are LRTIs?

- Acute bronchitis (COPD exacerbation)
- Exacerbation of bronchiectasis
- Pneumonia (lung abscess and empyema)
- TB
- Influenza

5

What is the most common causes of CAP?

Streptococcus pneumoniae
Less common - mycoplasma pneumoniae, haemophilius influenzae

6

What are the viral causes of pneumonia?

Influenza A+B, adenovirus, coronavirus - diagnosis with PCR

7

What is the most common fungal cause of pneumonia?

Pneumocystic jiroveci

8

What are the complications of CAP?

- Pleural effusion
- Infectious complications - empyema, lung abscess, metastatic infection, pericarditis
- VTE
- Hypotension
- Worsening of comorbidities (AF, heart failure etc)
- Side effects of antibiotics (C.difficile, future resistance)
- Sepsis

9

What is HAP defined as?

New onset of symptoms along with compatible x-ray developing more than 48 hours after the patient's admission to hospital.

10

What are the risk factors for HAP?

- ICU stay, mechanical ventilation
- Prolonged hospital or ICU stay (with increased risk of multi-drug resistant organisms)
- Severe underlying illness, multiple co-morbidities
- Underlying respiratory disease e.g. COPD, asthma
- Abdominal surgery, vomiting/aspiration

11

What are the causes of HAP?

- Enterobacteria (e.coli, klebsiella sp.)
- Staph aureus
- Psuedomonas sp.

12

How is TB transmitted?

- Inhalation of infected droplets
- Droplets generated by cough/sneeze
- Prolonged close contact usually required
- Only sputum smear-positive are infectious
- Occasional transmission from: infected milk, tuberculous abscess, post mortem

13

What is the primary infection of TB?

- Latent TB
- No specific immunity
- Small lung lesion
- Regional lymph node involvement
- Haematogenous spread
- Asymptomatic in 90%

14

What is the post-primary disease (active) of TB?

- Reactivation of persisting mycobacteria
- Much greater immune response
- Usually symptomatic