Flashcards in Biochemistry Deck (14)
What is the CURB65 score?
BP (systolic <90mmHg or diastolic <60mmHg)
Age 65 or greater
0-1 = low severity
2 = moderate severity
3-5 = high severity
What is the NEWS2 score?
2. O2 sats
3. Systolic BP
4. Pulse rate
5. Level of consciousness or new confusion
The score can be increased by 2 for people requiring supplemental oxygen to maintain their recommended O2 sat.
What are URTIs?
- Common cold
What are LRTIs?
- Acute bronchitis (COPD exacerbation)
- Exacerbation of bronchiectasis
- Pneumonia (lung abscess and empyema)
What is the most common causes of CAP?
Less common - mycoplasma pneumoniae, haemophilius influenzae
What are the viral causes of pneumonia?
Influenza A+B, adenovirus, coronavirus - diagnosis with PCR
What is the most common fungal cause of pneumonia?
What are the complications of CAP?
- Pleural effusion
- Infectious complications - empyema, lung abscess, metastatic infection, pericarditis
- Worsening of comorbidities (AF, heart failure etc)
- Side effects of antibiotics (C.difficile, future resistance)
What is HAP defined as?
New onset of symptoms along with compatible x-ray developing more than 48 hours after the patient's admission to hospital.
What are the risk factors for HAP?
- ICU stay, mechanical ventilation
- Prolonged hospital or ICU stay (with increased risk of multi-drug resistant organisms)
- Severe underlying illness, multiple co-morbidities
- Underlying respiratory disease e.g. COPD, asthma
- Abdominal surgery, vomiting/aspiration
What are the causes of HAP?
- Enterobacteria (e.coli, klebsiella sp.)
- Staph aureus
- Psuedomonas sp.
How is TB transmitted?
- Inhalation of infected droplets
- Droplets generated by cough/sneeze
- Prolonged close contact usually required
- Only sputum smear-positive are infectious
- Occasional transmission from: infected milk, tuberculous abscess, post mortem
What is the primary infection of TB?
- Latent TB
- No specific immunity
- Small lung lesion
- Regional lymph node involvement
- Haematogenous spread
- Asymptomatic in 90%