Biological: Brain Flashcards Preview

Intro to Psych > Biological: Brain > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biological: Brain Deck (28):
1

deep lesioning

insertion of a thin, insulated wire into the brain through which an electrical current is sent that destroys the brain cells at the tip of the wire

2

computed tomography (CT)

brain imaging method using computer controlled X-rays of the brain

3

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

brain imaging method using radio waves and magnetic fields of the body to produce detailed images of the brain

4

medulla

the first large swelling at the top of the spinal cord, forming the lowest part of the brain, which is responsible for life-sustaining functions such as breathing, swallowing, and heart rate

5

pons

the larger swelling above the medulla that connects the top of the brain to the bottom and that plays a part in sleep, dreaming, left-right body coordination, and arousal

6

reticular formation (RF)

an area of neurons running through the middle of the medulla and the pons and slightly beyond that is responsible for general attention, alertness, and arousal

7

cerebellum

part of the lower brain located behind the pons that controls and coordinates involuntary, rapid, fine motor movement

8

limbic system

a group of several brain structures located primarily under the cortex and involved in learning, emotion, memory, and motivation

9

thalamus

part of the limbic system located in the center of the brain, this structure relays sensory information from the lower part of the brain to the proper areas of the cortex and processes some sensory information before sending it to its proper area

10

olfactory bulbs

two projections just under the from of the brain that receive information from the receptors in the nose located just below

11

hypothalamus

small structure in the brain located below the thalamus and directly above the pituitary gland, responsible for motivational behavior such as sleep, hunger, thirst, and sex

12

hippocampus

curved structure located within each temporal lobe, responsible for the formation of long-term memories and the storage of memory for location of objects

13

amygdala

brain structure located near the hippocampus, responsible for fear responses and memory of fear

14

cortex

outermost covering of the brain consisting of densely packed neurons, responsible for higher thought processes and interpretation of sensory input

15

cerebral hemispheres

the two sections of the cortex on the left and right sides of the brain

16

corpus callosum

thick band of neurons that connects the right and left cerebral hemispheres

17

occipital lobe

section of the brain located at the rear and bottom of each cerebral hemisphere containing the visual centers of the brain

18

parietal lobes

sections of the brain located at the top and back of each cerebral hemisphere containing the centers for touch, taste, and temperature sensations

19

somatosensory cortex

area of neurons running down the front of the parietal lobes responsible for processing information from the skin and internal body receptors for touch, temperature, body position, and possibly taste

20

temporal lobes

areas of the brain located along the side, starting just behind the temples, containing the neurons responsible for the sense of hearing and meaningful speech

21

frontal lobes

areas of the brain located in the front and top, responsible for higher mental processes and decision making as well as the production of fluent speech

22

motor cortex

rear section of the frontal lobe, responsible for sending motor commands to the muscles of the somatic nervous systems

23

mirror neurons

neurons that fire when an animal or person performs an action and also when an animal or person observes that same action being performed by another

24

association areas

areas within each lobe of the cortex responsible for the coordination and interpretation of information, as well as higher mental processing

25

Broca's aphasia

condition resulting from damage to Broca's area, causing the affected person to be unable to speak fluently, to mispronounce words, and to speak haltingly

26

Wernicke's aphasia

condition resulting from damage to Wernicke's area, causing the affected person to be unable to understand or produce meaningful language

27

unilateral spatial neglect

condition produced most often by damage to the parietal lobe association areas of the right hemisphere resulting in an inability to recognize objects or body parts in the left visual field

28

cerebrum

the upper part of the brain consisting of the two hemispheres and the structures that connect them