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Flashcards in Biological Molcules - Fats Deck (25)
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1

What are lipids made of?

Triglycerides

2

What type of molecule is a triglyceride?

A long polymer held together by many bonds

3

What is a key property of lipids and why?

Insoluble - doesn't cause the cell to swell by osmosis

4

How are triglycerides found in the body?

They form insoluble droplets in cells with hydrophobic tails on outside - micelles

5

What is a triglyceride made up of?

- 1x glycerol
- 3x fatty acid tails

6

What bonds hold triglycerides together?

Ester bond

7

Draw a triglyceride

See notes

8

Are the fatty acid tails hydrophobic/hydrophilic?

Hydrophobic

9

Are the glycerol molecules hydrophobic/hydrophilic?

Hydrophilic

10

Where are saturated lipids found?

Animal fats

11

Where are unsaturated lipids found?

Plant fats

12

What does saturated lipids mean?

No carbon-carbon double bond between carbon atoms

13

What does unsaturated lipids mean?

Carbon-carbon double bond between carbon atoms

14

What do the chains of unsaturated lipids contain?

Kinks

15

Do unsaturated/saturated lipids have a higher melting point?

Saturated

16

Define "cholesterol"

Type of lipid needed in small amounts for normal body functions

17

What is cholesterol needed for?

Maintaining cell membranes

18

How is cholesterol transported in the blood?

Attaches to proteins to form lipoproteins

19

What are the two types of lipoprotein?

- LDL : low density lipoprotein
- HDL: high density lipoprotein

20

What are HDLs mainly made of?

Protein

21

What do HDLs do? 4

- Lower blood cholesterol
- Carry cholesterol from blood to liver where it is destroyed
- Reduce fat deposits
- Reduce formation of atheroma

22

What are LDLs mainly made of?

Lipids

23

What do LDLs do? 5

- Increase blood cholesterol
- Carry cholesterol from liver to the blood
- Increase fat deposits
- Increase formation of atheroma

24

What is the best ratio of HDL:LDL to minimise CVD risk?

High HDL:LDL ratio

25

Why does increased LDL/blood cholesterol mean increased CVD risk?

- Increased atheroma
- Increased blood pressure
- Increased blood clotting