Biological Molecules - Carbohydrates Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Biological Molecules - Carbohydrates Deck (47)
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1

Define "polymer"

Long molecule made up from many smaller molecules

2

Define "monomer"

Small molecules that make up polymers

3

What are the monomers in carbohydrates?

Monosaccharides e.g glucose

4

What are the polymers in carbohydrates?

Polysaccharides

5

What are the monomers in proteins?

Amino acids

6

What are the polymers in proteins?

Proteins/polypeptides

7

What are the monomers in fats?

Triglycerides

8

What are the monomers of nucleic acids?

Nucleotides

9

What are the polymers of nucleic acids?

DNA/RNA

10

What are carbohydrates?

Large complex molecules composed of long chains of monosaccharides

11

List 3 disaccharides

- Maltose
- Lactose
- Sucrose

12

What 2 monosaccharides is maltose made up of?

- Alpha glucose
- Alpha glucose

13

What 2 monosaccharides is sucrose made up of?

- Alpha glucose
- Fructose

14

What 2 monosaccharides is lactose made up of?

- Beta glucose
- Galactose

15

What bonds are in maltose?

1,4 glycosidic bonds

16

What bonds are in sucrose?

1,2 glycosidic bonds

17

What bonds are in lactose?

1,4 glycosidic bonds

18

Are disaccharides soluble?

Yes, but not as soluble as monosaccharides

19

What do the chemical bonds of disaccharides do compared to monosaccharides?

They store more energy

20

Give the formula for glucose?

C6H12C6

21

What two forms does glucose exist in?

- Alpha glucose
- Beta glucose

22

What type of sugar is glucose?

A hexose sugar

23

Draw alpha glucose

See notes

24

Define "condensation"

A reaction of two molecules joining together to form a large molecule and a water molecule

25

Define "glycosidic bond"

Every bond between molecules in carbohydrates, joining monosaccharides into polysaccharides

26

Define "hydrolysis"

When molecules split apart using a molecule of water

27

Give an example of hydrolysis

Polysaccharides splitting into monosaccharides

28

Define "polysaccharide"

A polymer of many monosaccharides joined together through condensation reactions for storage

29

Give the two main polysaccharides

- Starch
- Glycogen

30

What are the two types of starch?

- Two polysaccharides of alpha glucose
- Amylose
- Amylopectin

31

What is the purpose of starch?

Glucose/energy storage in plants for respiration

32

What is the purpose of glycogen?

Glucose/energy storage in animals for respiration

33

What monomers make up both types of starch?

Alpha glucose

34

What monomer makes up glycogen?

Alpha glucose

35

What type of bonds make up amylose?

1,4 glycosidic bonds

36

What type of bonds make up amylopectin?

1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bonds

37

What type of bonds make up glycogen?

1,4 and 1,6 glycosidic bonds

38

What kind of structure does amylose have and how does it link to its function?

- Unbranched chains
- Angles of the glycosidic bonds give it a coiled structure, like a cylinder
- Makes it more compact for storage of glucose

39

What kind of structure does amylopectin have and how does it link to its function?

- Branched chains
- Increases its surface area
- More accessible to enzymes
- Hydrolysed into glucose more quickly

40

What kind of structure does glycogen have compared to amylopectin and how does it link to its function?

- More branched chains
- Bigger surface area
- Even more accessible to enzymes
- Faster hydrolysis

41

Why does glycogen need to be hydrolysed more quickly than amylopectin?

Animals move so respire far more

42

What are both starch and glycogen and why?

Insoluble - doesn't cause cells to swell by osmosis

43

List the properties of glycogen that adapt it to its function.

- Very branched
- Large
- Insoluble
- Compact

44

How does glycogen being large make it useful for its function?

Can store high amounts of glucose and therefore energy

45

How does glycogen being compact make it useful for its function?

Good for storage

46

What is amylose?

A long unbranched chain of alpha glucose

47

What is amylopectin?

Long branched chain of alpha glucose