CVD: Risk Factors and Treatment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CVD: Risk Factors and Treatment Deck (51)
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What is cardiovascular disease - CVD?

All diseases of the heart and circulatory system


Give examples of CVD. 3

- Coronary heart disease [CHD]
- Stroke
- Heart attack/myocardial infarction


List risk factors for CVD that are due to lifestyle (6)

- Smoking
- Salt intake
- Alcohol intake
- Diet high in saturated fat
- Inactivity
- BMI/Weight


List risk factors for CVD beyond the individual's control

- Genetics
- Age
- Gender


What is the trend between BMI/Weight and CVD?

- The higher the BMI/weight, the higher the risk of CVD


Why is a diet high in cholesterol/saturated fat a risk factor for CVD? 4

- Increases cholesterol level in blood
- Increases atheroma formation
- Increases blood pressure
- Increases blood clot formation


How is alcohol and salt intake a risk factor for CVD?

They increase high blood pressure


How is inactivity a risk factor for CVD?

Linked to obesity and high blood pressure


What 2 substances in smoking increase the risk of CVD?

- Carbon monoxide
- Nicotine


How does carbon monoxide in smoking increase the risk of CVD? 4

- Combines with haemoglobin
- Decreases oxygen transported in blood
- Less oxygen for tissues
- Can lead to heart attacks/stroke


How does nicotine increase the risk of CVD?

- Makes platelets sticky
- Increases chance of blood clot formation


Other than nicotine and carbon monoxide, how does smoking increase the risk of CVD? 4

- Decreases antioxidants in the blood
- These protect cells from damage
- Increased risk of cell damage in arteries
- Increased atheroma formation


How is aging a risk factor for CVD? 3

- Arteries less elastic
- Plaque builds up slowly over time
- Increases blood pressure


How is gender a risk factor for CVD? 2

- Males more likely to suffer from CVD
- Oestrogen increases HDL levels in blood


How are genetics a risk factor for CVD?

- Individuals can inherit alleles making them more likely to have:
- High blood pressure
- High blood cholesterol


Define "risk"

The chance of an unfavorable event occurring


What are the problems with perception of risk? 2

- Perception of risk is not equal to actual risk
- Actual risk can be overestimated or underestimated


How can actual risk be underestimated?

Lack of information makes people unaware of risk factors


How can actual risk be overestimated?

- Constant exposure to media emphasising risk
- Personal experience e.g family relative smoker dying of CVD


What 4 types of drugs can be used to treat CVD?

- Antihypertensives
- Statins
- Anticoagulants
- Platelet inhibitors


What do all antihypertensives do?

Reduce blood pressure


Why does reducing blood pressure reduce risk of CVD?

- Less damage to artery wall
- Less atheroma formation
- Less chance of blood clot formation


Name 4 types of antihypertensives

- Beta blockers
- Vasodilators
- Diuretics
- ACE Inhibitors
- Calcium channel blockers


What do beta blockers do? 2

- Reduce heart beat strength - Reduce heart rate


What do vasodilators do?

- Widen blood vessels [vasodilation]


What do diuretics do? 3

- Reduces amount of salt reabsorbed from blood by kidneys
- Less water reabsorbed
- Reduced blood volume


What do calcium channel blockers do? 4

- Blocking calcium ion channels
- Prevent arterial muscle contraction
- Prevents vasoconstriction
- Lowers blood pressure


What is the advantage to using antihypertensives? 2

- Many different types - can be given in combination to reduce blood pressure
- Blood pressure can be monitored by patients at home to check if drugs work


What are the risks of using antihypertensives?

- Headaches
- Vomiting
- Blood pressure could fall too low - cause fainting
- Palpitations


What do statins do?

Lower blood cholesterol