CVD: Risk Factors and Treatment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in CVD: Risk Factors and Treatment Deck (51)
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1

What is cardiovascular disease - CVD?

All diseases of the heart and circulatory system

2

Give examples of CVD. 3

- Coronary heart disease [CHD]
- Stroke
- Heart attack/myocardial infarction

3

List risk factors for CVD that are due to lifestyle (6)

- Smoking
- Salt intake
- Alcohol intake
- Diet high in saturated fat
- Inactivity
- BMI/Weight

4

List risk factors for CVD beyond the individual's control

- Genetics
- Age
- Gender

5

What is the trend between BMI/Weight and CVD?

- The higher the BMI/weight, the higher the risk of CVD

6

Why is a diet high in cholesterol/saturated fat a risk factor for CVD? 4

- Increases cholesterol level in blood
- Increases atheroma formation
- Increases blood pressure
- Increases blood clot formation

7

How is alcohol and salt intake a risk factor for CVD?

They increase high blood pressure

8

How is inactivity a risk factor for CVD?

Linked to obesity and high blood pressure

9

What 2 substances in smoking increase the risk of CVD?

- Carbon monoxide
- Nicotine

10

How does carbon monoxide in smoking increase the risk of CVD? 4

- Combines with haemoglobin
- Decreases oxygen transported in blood
- Less oxygen for tissues
- Can lead to heart attacks/stroke

11

How does nicotine increase the risk of CVD?

- Makes platelets sticky
- Increases chance of blood clot formation

12

Other than nicotine and carbon monoxide, how does smoking increase the risk of CVD? 4

- Decreases antioxidants in the blood
- These protect cells from damage
- Increased risk of cell damage in arteries
- Increased atheroma formation

13

How is aging a risk factor for CVD? 3

- Arteries less elastic
- Plaque builds up slowly over time
- Increases blood pressure

14

How is gender a risk factor for CVD? 2

- Males more likely to suffer from CVD
- Oestrogen increases HDL levels in blood

15

How are genetics a risk factor for CVD?

- Individuals can inherit alleles making them more likely to have:
- High blood pressure
- High blood cholesterol

16

Define "risk"

The chance of an unfavorable event occurring

17

What are the problems with perception of risk? 2

- Perception of risk is not equal to actual risk
- Actual risk can be overestimated or underestimated

18

How can actual risk be underestimated?

Lack of information makes people unaware of risk factors

19

How can actual risk be overestimated?

- Constant exposure to media emphasising risk
- Personal experience e.g family relative smoker dying of CVD

20

What 4 types of drugs can be used to treat CVD?

- Antihypertensives
- Statins
- Anticoagulants
- Platelet inhibitors

21

What do all antihypertensives do?

Reduce blood pressure

22

Why does reducing blood pressure reduce risk of CVD?

- Less damage to artery wall
- Less atheroma formation
- Less chance of blood clot formation

23

Name 4 types of antihypertensives

- Beta blockers
- Vasodilators
- Diuretics
- ACE Inhibitors
- Calcium channel blockers

24

What do beta blockers do? 2

- Reduce heart beat strength - Reduce heart rate

25

What do vasodilators do?

- Widen blood vessels [vasodilation]

26

What do diuretics do? 3

- Reduces amount of salt reabsorbed from blood by kidneys
- Less water reabsorbed
- Reduced blood volume

27

What do calcium channel blockers do? 4

- Blocking calcium ion channels
- Prevent arterial muscle contraction
- Prevents vasoconstriction
- Lowers blood pressure

28

What is the advantage to using antihypertensives? 2

- Many different types - can be given in combination to reduce blood pressure
- Blood pressure can be monitored by patients at home to check if drugs work

29

What are the risks of using antihypertensives?

- Headaches
- Vomiting
- Blood pressure could fall too low - cause fainting
- Palpitations

30

What do statins do?

Lower blood cholesterol