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Flashcards in Biological molecules - protein synthesis Deck (13)
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1

what is the main outcome of transcription?

DNA is copied and transported to the site of protein synthesis (the ribosomes)

2

what is the main outcome of translation?

to produce proteins

3

the process of transcription

1 - the DNA is unzipped by DNA helicase
2 - free nucleotides pair with complementary base strands on the template strand
3 - phosphodiester bonds form between RNA nucleotides by RNA polymerase
4 - the completed mRNA strand detaches and leaves through the nuclear pore

4

what is the sense strand?

one strand of the DNA out of the 2 that has a code

5

what is the difference between RNA and DNA in terms of bases?

RNA has uracil instead of thymine

6

what bonds are formed in transcription?

phosphodiester bonds

7

what enzymes help the bonds to form between the free nucleotides?

RNA polymerase

8

what is mRNA?

the messenger RNA that leaves the nucleus due to its small size

9

where does the RNA leave the nucleus?

the nuclear pore

10

what is the process of translation?

1 - mRNA binds to the ribosome and gets translated
2 - tRNA binds to the mRNA start codon (tRNA has complementary anti-codon)
3 - amino acids are brought together in correct sequence to form primary protein structure and the polypeptide chains grows

11

What is tRNA?

transfer RNA

12

What is an anti-codon?

3 bases at the end of the molecule that binds to a complementary codon on mRNA

13

What is the polypeptide chain?

the chain of amino acids that forms the primary structure of a protein