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what is the main outcome of transcription?

DNA is copied and transported to the site of protein synthesis (the ribosomes)


what is the main outcome of translation?

to produce proteins


the process of transcription

1 - the DNA is unzipped by DNA helicase
2 - free nucleotides pair with complementary base strands on the template strand
3 - phosphodiester bonds form between RNA nucleotides by RNA polymerase
4 - the completed mRNA strand detaches and leaves through the nuclear pore


what is the sense strand?

one strand of the DNA out of the 2 that has a code


what is the difference between RNA and DNA in terms of bases?

RNA has uracil instead of thymine


what bonds are formed in transcription?

phosphodiester bonds


what enzymes help the bonds to form between the free nucleotides?

RNA polymerase


what is mRNA?

the messenger RNA that leaves the nucleus due to its small size


where does the RNA leave the nucleus?

the nuclear pore


what is the process of translation?

1 - mRNA binds to the ribosome and gets translated
2 - tRNA binds to the mRNA start codon (tRNA has complementary anti-codon)
3 - amino acids are brought together in correct sequence to form primary protein structure and the polypeptide chains grows


What is tRNA?

transfer RNA


What is an anti-codon?

3 bases at the end of the molecule that binds to a complementary codon on mRNA


What is the polypeptide chain?

the chain of amino acids that forms the primary structure of a protein