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Flashcards in Biological molecules - nucleic acids Deck (17)
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1

What are pyrimidines?

They have single carbon bonds

2

What bases are pyrimidines?

Cytosine and thymine

3

What are purines?

double bonds between the carbon atoms

4

What bases are purines?

Adenine and guanine

5

What bond is between the phosphates and the sugars?

phosphodiester bonds

6

what is the structure of DNA?

a phosphate, pentose deoxyribose sugar and a nitrogenous base

7

What is the structure of RNA?

a phosphate, pentose ribose sugar

8

What nitrogenous bases are in RNA?

Uracil, cytosine, adenine, guanine

9

How are phosphodiester bonds formed?

condensation reaction

10

what shape does the DNA structure form?

a double helix which is anti-parallel

11

What bond is between the nitrogenous bases?

Hydrogen

12

how are the phosphodiester bonds broken?

hydrolysis reactions

13

what nitrogenous base pairs with adenine?

thymine or uracil

14

what nitrogenous base pairs with guanine?

cytosine

15

What is RNA role?

they copy a strand of DNA and remove it out of the nucleus for protein synthesis

16

How is DNA extracted from plant material?

1 - grind sample with pestle and motor to break down cell walls
2 - mix the sample with detergent to break down the cell membrane
3- add salt to break the hydrogen bonds between DNA and water molecules
4 - add protease enzyme to break down proteins associated with the DNA
5 - add a layer of ethanol on top which causes DNA to precipitate out of solution
6 - DNA would appear as white strands between the sample and the alcohol
7- the white layer can be spooled onto a glass rod

17

name 3 different types of RNA found in cells

tRNA, mRNA, rRNA