Flashcards in Biological molecules - nucleic acids Deck (17)
What are pyrimidines?
They have single carbon bonds
What bases are pyrimidines?
Cytosine and thymine
What are purines?
double bonds between the carbon atoms
What bases are purines?
Adenine and guanine
What bond is between the phosphates and the sugars?
what is the structure of DNA?
a phosphate, pentose deoxyribose sugar and a nitrogenous base
What is the structure of RNA?
a phosphate, pentose ribose sugar
What nitrogenous bases are in RNA?
Uracil, cytosine, adenine, guanine
How are phosphodiester bonds formed?
what shape does the DNA structure form?
a double helix which is anti-parallel
What bond is between the nitrogenous bases?
how are the phosphodiester bonds broken?
what nitrogenous base pairs with adenine?
thymine or uracil
what nitrogenous base pairs with guanine?
What is RNA role?
they copy a strand of DNA and remove it out of the nucleus for protein synthesis
How is DNA extracted from plant material?
1 - grind sample with pestle and motor to break down cell walls
2 - mix the sample with detergent to break down the cell membrane
3- add salt to break the hydrogen bonds between DNA and water molecules
4 - add protease enzyme to break down proteins associated with the DNA
5 - add a layer of ethanol on top which causes DNA to precipitate out of solution
6 - DNA would appear as white strands between the sample and the alcohol
7- the white layer can be spooled onto a glass rod