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Flashcards in Biology & Chemistry Deck (14)
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How does CRISPR-CAS9 work?

CRISPR encodes specific RNA sequences to recognize. CAS9 is an enzyme that uses the guide RNA to find and snip out that sequence and potentially replace it


What is a protein?

Proteins are large macromolecules or bio molecules composed of amino acids. The sequence of amino acids and protein folding determine the biological function that they serve.


What is an enzyme?

An enzyme is both a protein and a biocatalyst


What is diffusion?

Movement of anything from high to low concentration.


What is osmosis and how is it different from diffusion?

Osmosis is a special case of diffusion where the solvent moves across a semipermeable membrane


What is a hormone?

A chemical substance used to communicate and regulate behavior between organs


What is polyester made out of?

Extruded petroleum


How does tree grafting work?

Put desirable top (scion) on an undesirable stump. Good for asexual reproduction and propagation of a tree.


What is bronze made out of? Why was it so useful in early human development?

Bronze is a copper-tin alloy that is much harder than other available metals. It is easier to make than iron, which has a higher melting point


How big is a mole? How was that value picked?

6.022x10^23. Chosen so the atomic mass matches grams


What is steel made out of?

Iron and carbon


What is stainless steel made out of?

Iron, carbon, and >10.5% chromium


What is the difference between a marsh, swamp, bog, and fen?

They are all wetlands.

A marsh has poorly drained mineral soil and grass with a constant inflow of water. They often have rich mineral deposits and plant and animal life.

A swamp has waterlogged soils interspersed with dry land. They usually have trees and often develop from marshes as the plants slow down the water.

A bog (i.e. quagmire) has a sealed clay bottom and lacks nutrients. Moss, fungi, and small plants live and decompose plant matter into peat.

A fen has a clay bottom but there's a crack where water seeps up from underground into the depression. Thus, it is like a bog but also has some fresh water flowing in.


What is the difference between a seed, grain, and cereal?

Seeds are just the embryonic part that can grow into a new plant.

Grains are seeds (maybe with bran aka the fruit part) grown for consumption and not necessarily viable.

Cereals are grains for grasses