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Flashcards in Biology & Chemistry Deck (14)
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1

How does CRISPR-CAS9 work?

CRISPR encodes specific RNA sequences to recognize. CAS9 is an enzyme that uses the guide RNA to find and snip out that sequence and potentially replace it

2

What is a protein?

Proteins are large macromolecules or bio molecules composed of amino acids. The sequence of amino acids and protein folding determine the biological function that they serve.

3

What is an enzyme?

An enzyme is both a protein and a biocatalyst

4

What is diffusion?

Movement of anything from high to low concentration.

5

What is osmosis and how is it different from diffusion?

Osmosis is a special case of diffusion where the solvent moves across a semipermeable membrane

6

What is a hormone?

A chemical substance used to communicate and regulate behavior between organs

7

What is polyester made out of?

Extruded petroleum

8

How does tree grafting work?

Put desirable top (scion) on an undesirable stump. Good for asexual reproduction and propagation of a tree.

9

What is bronze made out of? Why was it so useful in early human development?

Bronze is a copper-tin alloy that is much harder than other available metals. It is easier to make than iron, which has a higher melting point

10

How big is a mole? How was that value picked?

6.022x10^23. Chosen so the atomic mass matches grams

11

What is steel made out of?

Iron and carbon

12

What is stainless steel made out of?

Iron, carbon, and >10.5% chromium

13

What is the difference between a marsh, swamp, bog, and fen?

They are all wetlands.

A marsh has poorly drained mineral soil and grass with a constant inflow of water. They often have rich mineral deposits and plant and animal life.

A swamp has waterlogged soils interspersed with dry land. They usually have trees and often develop from marshes as the plants slow down the water.

A bog (i.e. quagmire) has a sealed clay bottom and lacks nutrients. Moss, fungi, and small plants live and decompose plant matter into peat.

A fen has a clay bottom but there's a crack where water seeps up from underground into the depression. Thus, it is like a bog but also has some fresh water flowing in.

14

What is the difference between a seed, grain, and cereal?

Seeds are just the embryonic part that can grow into a new plant.

Grains are seeds (maybe with bran aka the fruit part) grown for consumption and not necessarily viable.

Cereals are grains for grasses