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According to Charles Duhigg, what is the habit loop?

Cue, Routine, and Reward


According to Charles Duhigg, what is the golden rule of habit change?

To change the habit, keep the cue and reward but change the routine


According to Charles Duhigg, how do you change a habit?

Identify the habit, experiment with rewards, isolate the cue, and have a plan


According to Jamil Zaki, what are the 3 components of empathy? How can they lead to burnout?

Feeling, understanding, and acting. If you feel and understand but can't act, you get burned out.


What are the 4 concepts of Ikigai?

What I enjoy, what I'm good at, What others need, and what I can get paid for


What is the Pygmalion effect?

When a teacher is told that certain students are smarter, those students do better. This is probably due to more attention and enthusiasm to teaching these students


According to Dan Pink, what are the 3 aspects of Motivation 2.0?

Autonomy, Mastery, and Purpose


According to Bill Burnett, what are the 3 results of work?

Money, Impact, and Expression


According to Jane McGonigal, what are the 4 aspects of a game?

Goal, Rules, Feedback system, and Voluntary participation


According to Alison Gopnik, what are the two types of modern American parents?

The "carpenter" thinks that his or her child can be molded. "The idea is that if you just do the right things, get the right skills, read the right books, you're going to be able to shape your child into a particular kind of adult," she says.

The "gardener," on the other hand, is less concerned about controlling who the child will become and instead provides a protected space to explore. The style is all about "creating a rich, nurturant but also variable, diverse, dynamic ecosystem."


What is Daniel Dennett’s 3 step jootsing process to creativity?

1. Go deep in a system to understand it and it’s rules
2. Go outside of the system and find something surprising that subverts it’s rules
3. Use both of those to come up with something new and creative.


According to Taleb, what is a test for being antifragile?

Antifragile things have more upside than downside to random events or certain shocks


What is Taleb’s chief ethical rule?

Thou shalt not have antifragility at the expense of the fragility of others.

You must have skin in the game.


What 3 mythological metaphors does Taleb use for fragility, robustness, and antifragility?

Damocles, the Phoenix, and the hydra


According to Taleb, how is overcompensation a type of redundancy?

Overcompensation adds extra resources in anticipation of even greater stressors, which is redundancy. For example, becoming immune to poison in small steps.


According to Taleb, how is an artist antifragile in a way that a mid level banker is not?

“There’s no such thing as bad press.” Outrageous actions and critique only draw attention and strengthen reputation whereas the banker would get fired and lose everything.


According to Taleb, how is the startup ecosystem antifragile at a macro level?

Individual startups need to fail and confer the lessons to others. Same goes for a competitive local restaurant scene.


According to Taleb, how are nation states and Switzerland an example of mediocristan?

Switzerland doesn’t have a strong central government, so squabbles happen largely at a local level. This local volatility creates long-term stability


According to Taleb, how are forest fires an example of suppressed volatility? What’s the cost?

In the short-term, there’s more apparent stability. Long-term, it builds into black swan events far more destructive than natural volatility


According to Taleb, how are the taxi driver and the banker examples of different levels of volatility?

The taxi driver has day-to-day volatility in his fares, but at least the risk is visible. The banker has day-to-day stability until he gets fired


According to Taleb, what is iatrogenic? How does it apply to medicine and elsewhere?

The damage from treatment is worse than the benefit. For example, George Washington being bled to death. Also very common in socioeconomic settings that are complex ecosystems that cannot easily be disturbed. For example, suppressing forest fires, city planning, overparenting


According to Taleb, what is a barbell strategy? What are examples?

To achieve antifragility, combine extreme stability with extreme volatility to minimize downside while getting exposure to upside. Better to be aggressive and paranoid than cautiously optimistic.

For example, writers take a boring day job and write at night. Protect the weaker class, let the stronger class do their job, and don’t worry about the middle class.


According to Taleb, how did Seneca exhibit antifragility?

With Stoicism, he conditioned himself to always expect the worst e.g. traveling with nothing. He also maintained upside in his wealth


According to Taleb, what are Fat Tony’s two rules to get skin in the game?

1. Never get on a plane if the pilot is not onboard
2. Make sure there is a copilot


According to Taleb, how can you apply "less is more" to forecasting?

More data tends to make our analysis more fragile since we are blind to black swans anyways. Instead, rely on simpler heuristics and singular reasons


According to Julian Shapiro what 3 things help storytelling?

1. Create suspense with hooks and cliffhangers
2. Relive the emotions by blowing your own mind
3. Vary your speed and volume especially with pauses


According to Taleb, how is fragility concave? What’s an example?

As the intensity of the shock goes up the harm grows even faster. For example, falling damage


According to Taleb, what should we think of instead of probabilities?

Payoffs. Probabilities or true/false don’t consider the net effect


According to Taleb, how do options create antifragility?

Options allow you to take the (unlimited) upside when available but with limited downside.


According to Taleb, how does scientific progress misrepresent technological and practical progress?

Progress usually starts with trial and error in practice then we derive theories from that. However, we often think of basic research in the other direction having motivated the change