Biotechnology Flashcards Preview

Midterm #2 > Biotechnology > Flashcards

Flashcards in Biotechnology Deck (30)
Loading flashcards...
1

Define biotechnology

Use of microbiological and biochemical techniques to produce useful products and solve practical problems

2

Name some examples of biotechnology

Identification technologies and DNA cloning

3

Describe DNA sequencing

Determining the sequence of bases in a whole genome

4

Describe DNA probes

Short ,labeled single strand of bases used to detect a complementary sequence of DNA
You look for the fluorescence in the sample using the fluorescent microscope to view if it's positive or negative

5

Is colony blotting used in identification technologies

Yes

6

What is FISH

Fluorescence in situ hybridization

7

Describe the process of FISH

Treat the cells with a chemical. Opens membranes to allow probes to enter. Probe sneaks in to entact cells. Put florescence finds the DNA binds and then you can look for it with the microscope

8

What can DNA microarrays do

Detect many genes at one time

9

Describe the process of microarrays

You start with the chip add holes with the DNA probe looking for something. The chip is already embedded within the spots. Have to add DNA that has fluorescent label on it. Wash the unknown with the probe. One sample goes through the probe you put it through the computer to read the colors

10

Describe DNA fingerprinting

Isolation and visualization of DNA sequences to help identify an unknown

11

Describe restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLP)

It's the creation of fragments of different lengths using restriction enzymes

12

What do restriction enzymes do

Cut DNA at specific 4-6 base pair sequences

13

Describe gel electrophoresis

Visualize fragments using gel electrophoresis. The DNA gel is stained with ethidium bromide, a dye that fluoresces under the UV light
If it's a short fragment it's going to go fast and long fragments is the opposite that's how they're separated

14

What is the size standard used for

A control (molecular weight ladder)

15

Describe the polymerase chain reaction(PCR)

The amplification of a DNA sequence using specific primers and the thermal cycler to replicate DNA.
It's used to visualize amplified DNA on a gel.
The band is thick because they're all the same size

16

What is DNA cloning

The procedure in which a gene of interest is extracted and inserted into another cell where he can be expressed and replicated

17

What does DNA cloning involve

Recombinant DNA(rDNA), genetic engineering

18

What is rDNA

DNA formed from joining DNA from two sources

19

What is genetic engineering

When you alter an organism by changing its DNA

20

Name the steps for DNA cloning

1) obtain DNA
2) Cut DNA at restriction sites
3) insert gene of interest into vector
4) insert vector into hosting cell(mass Producer)
5) collect product

21

What happens in step one of DNA cloning

Lyse source cell with gene of interest and collect DNA

22

Describe step two of DNA cloning

Restriction enzymes create multiple fragments of variable length with sticky ends

23

Describe step three of DNA cloning

Vectors: plasmids, phages
Cut vector open with same restriction enzyme

24

Describe step four of DNA cloning

Hosts: E. coli, bacillus subtilius

Methods: artificial transformation(plasmids) - heat shock and electroporation
Artificial transduction(phages)

Culture bacteria

25

Describe step five of DNA cloning

Protein
-lyse cells and purify protein
-collect and purify secreted proteins from cells

Gene
-lyse cells and collect gene of interest

26

What are variations of DNA cloning

Eukaryotic genes into prokaryotic hosts
-create cDNA from mRNA

27

Describe the ways that genes are put into eukaryotic hosts

Host cells grown in culture
DNA insertion methods

28

Name the DNA insertion methods

Artificial transformation
Viral or bacterial-mediated gene delivery
Gene gun (plant cells)
Microinjection (animal cells)

29

What are transgenic organisms

Organism has foreign DNA present in every cell
Also called genetically modified organisms(gMO's)

30

What are four ways that animal viruses can interact with host cells

Acute ,chronic ,transformation, Latent reverse transcription and special Enzyme