Bioterrorism Flashcards Preview

med microbiology test 4 > Bioterrorism > Flashcards

Flashcards in Bioterrorism Deck (150):
1

What is bioterrorism?

unlawful use or threatened use of microorganisms or toxins derived from living organisms to produce death or disease in humans, plants or animals.

2

The act of bioterrorism is intended to do what?

create fear and intimidate governments or society in pursuit of political, religious or ideological goals.

3

What was the first recorded large scale act involving international disease spread? when was this?

In 1356 during the siege of kaffa when the Tartar army hurled its plague-ridden dead over the walls of the besieged city.

4

In 1763 what bioterrorism events was believed to have occured?

During the French and Indian war there was evidence to suggest that an English General intentionally gave blankets contaminated with small pox scabs to Native Americans loyal to the French. Causing an epidemic that decimated the tribes

5

What bioterrorism event were the Germans responsible for in WWII?

They had a bioweapons program in which they intentionally infected horses and other transport animals with agents of anthrax and glanders.

6

Soon after WWI the Geneva protocol was signed banning what?

biological weapons

7

All countries at the Geneva convention signed the Geneva protocol except whom?

Japan

8

Shortly before WWII Japanese bioweapons program produced agents to cause what?

anthrax, plaque, cholera and shigellosis

9

Field experiments of Japanese bioweapons were conducted on whom?

Chinese prisoners of war and civilians; tens of thousands dies in result of this testing

10

One of Japanese bioweapon field test shortly before WWII including dropping what? Doing what?

dropping ceramic bomblets containg plaque-infected fleas and grain on Chinese cities including Nanking. The grain attracted rats which were bitten by fleas and subsequently infected with plaque. This allowed disease to spread into the human population.

11

The Geneva convention was held what year?

1925 (in between WWI and WWII)

12

When reports of Japan's bioweapons program started filtering in what was the presidnet's response?

To launch a research program on biological agents

13

Who was the president who launched a research program on biological agents? what year?

President Roosevelt in 1941

14

Who was George W. Merck?

was in charge of Merck Pharmaceuticals and was named the head of the Army's chemical warfare Service under President Roosevelt.

15

When did THe US publicly announce its involvement in bioweapon research?

1946

16

What president limited biological weapon research to defensive purposes only after the World Health Organization issued a report describing the unpredictibility of bioweapons? What year?

President Nixon in 1969

17

In 1969 President Nixon does what?

Eliminated offensive biological warfare program and limits it to defensive purposes only.

18

In 1972 the biological weapons Convention Treaty called for what?

all countries to destroy their stocks of bioweapons and cease all offensive bioweapon research

19

The biological Weapons Convention Treaty was signed by whom?

103 nations including the U.S. and the former Soviet Union

20

What does WHO stand for?

World Health Organization

21

Because of concern of laboratory-acquired small pox infections, the WHO recommeded consolidating all variola virus stocks. Officially only 2 laboratories retained stocks of small pox. where are these two laboratories?

1) In the U.S.

2) In Russia

22

in 1979 what was accidentally released at a bioweapon research facility in Sverdlosk, U.S.S.R ? Causing how many deaths

Bacillus anthraccis spores; causing atleast 68 deaths due to inhalation anthrax

23

What does U.S.S.R stand for?

Union of Soviet Socialist Republics

24

When a bioweapon was accidentally released in 1979 at a research facility in Sverdlosk, U.S.S.R most cases occured with in how many day? This incubation period has ramifications of what?

most cases occured with in 2-5 days following accident although some had incubation period up to 43 days; This long incubation period has ramifications for antibiotic post-exposure prophylaxis

25

In the early 1990s during the breakup of the former Soviet Union, scientist involved in bioweapons research did what?

Defected to the west and began discussing their activities with Western government officials

26

Has the U.S experienced bioterrorism events prior to the anthrax release that occured in the fall of 2001?

Yes

27

Members of the Rajneeshee cult in Oregon experimented with various bioweapon prior to their 1984 act of bioterrorism. What was their act of bioterrorism? What was the purpose?

Deliberately contaminated salad bar of local restaurants with Salmonella typhimurium; the cult sought to influence the outcome of upcoming municipal elections.

28

The bioweapon's attack by Raineeshee cult in Oregon caused illness to how many? did their attack achieve their goal?

over 700 people; no they still list the election

29

In Minnesota the year of 1992 what bioterrorism event occured?

Members of Minnesota Patriots Council, a militia group, planned to kill local authorities with ricin, a potent toxin obtained from castor beans

30

What bioterrorism event occured in fall of 2001?

Bacillus anthracis spores were placed in at least 7 envelopes passing through U.S. mail facilities in Florida, Washington D.C., New York and New Jersey.

31

What was the result of the bioterrorism event in fall of 2001?

22 confirmed or suspected cases of anthrax , 5 of whom died

32

The Centers of Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) developed a ranking system for potential biological agents based on the following criteria?

1) The level of morbidity and mortality associated with disease

2) Delivery potential of the disease ( which involves the ability to be aerosolized)

3) Public perception (certain diseases generate greater fear and civil disruption)

4) And public health preparedness needs, such as needs for vaccine or mass chemoprophylaxis (preventive treatment)

33

A bioterrorism attack is what?

The deliberate release of viruses, bacteria, or other germs (agents) used to cause illness or death in people, animals or plants

34

Bioterroism agents have what categories

Category A
Category B
Category C

35

Category A bioterrorism agents include...

Organisms or toxins (high-priority toxins) that pose the highest risk to the public and national security?

36

Why do Category A bioterrorism agents pose the highest risk to public and national security?

a) easy spread

b) result in high death rates and have the potential for major public health impact

c) Might cause public panic and social disruption

d)Require special action for public health prepardness

37

Category B bioterroism agents are what?

The second highest priority

38

What are Category B bioterroism agents the second highest priority?

a) moderately easy to spread

b) Moderate illness rates and low death rates

c) Require specific enhancements of CDC's laboratory capacity and enhanced disease monitoring

39

Category C bioterrorism agents are what? Including what?

Are third highest priority agents; including emerging pathogens that can be engineered for mass spread in the future

40

What are category C bioterroism agents the third highest priority agents?

a) They are easily available

b) They are easily produced and spread

c) They have potential for high morbidity and mortality rates and major health impact

41

Variola major (small pox) is what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category A

42

Variola major is also called what?

small pox

43

Bacillus anthracis is also called what?

Anthrax

44

Yersinia pestis is also called what?

plague

45

Clostridium botulinim toxin is also called what?

botulism

46

Francisella tularensis is also called what?

Tularaemia

47

Filoviruses include what?

-Ebola Hemorrhagic fever
-Marburg hemorrhagic fever

48

arena viruses include what?

- Lassa (Lassa fever)
-Junin ( Argentins hemorrhagic fever) and related viruses

49

Bacillus anthracis (anthrax) is what category bioterrorism agent?

Category A

50

Yersinia pestis (plague) is what category bioterrorism agent?

Category A

51

Clostridium botulinum toxin (botulism) is what category bioterrorism agent?

Category A

52

Francisella tularensis (tularaemia) is what type of bioterrorism?

Category A

53

Filoviruses are what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category A

54

arenaviruses are what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category A

55

Lassa is what type of bioterrorism agent?

Lassa is a arenaviruses thus category A bioterrorism agent

56

Junin is what type of bioterrorism agent?

Junin (Argentine hemorrhagic fever) is an arenaviruses thus a category A bioterrorism agent

57

Coxiella burnetti is also called?

Q fever

58

Brucella species are also called what?

brucellosis

59

Burkholderia mallei is also called what?

glanders

60

Alpha viruses are what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category B

61

Venezuelan encephalomyelitis are what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category B bioterrorism agents

62

Eastern and weastern equine is what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category B bioterrorism agents

63

Encephalomyelitis is what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category B bioterrorism agents

64

Ricin toxin from Ricinus communis (castor beans) is what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category B

65

Epsilon toxin of Clsotridium perfringens are what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category B bioterrorism agent

66

Staphylococcus enterotoxin B are what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category B bioterrorism agent

67

Coxiella burnetti (Q fever) is what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category B Bioterrorism agent

68

Brucella species (brucellosis) is what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category B bioterrorism agent

69

Burkholderia mallei (glanders) are what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category B bioterrorism agent

70

Subsets of category B bioterrorism agents inculdes what?

pathogens that are food or waterborne

71

Pathogens that are foo or waterborne are subsets of what category bioterrorism agent?

category B bioterrorism agent

72

Salmonella species is what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category B subset bioterrorism agent

73

Shigella dysenteriae is what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category B subset bioterrorism agent

74

E. coli O157:H7 is what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category B subset bioterrorism agent

75

Vibrio cholerae is what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category B subset bioterrorism agent

76

Cryptosporidium parvum is what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category B subset bioterrorism agent

77

Category C bioterrorism agents includes what type of pathogens?

emerging pathogens that could be engineered for mass dissemination in the future

78

Nipah virus is what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category C bioterrorism agent

79

Hantaviruses are what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category C bioterrorism agent

80

Fick-borne hemorrhagic fever viruses are what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category C bioterrorism agent

81

Tick-borne encephalitis viruses are what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category C bioterrorism agent

82

Yellow fever is what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category C bioterrorism agent

83

Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis is what type of bioterrorism agent?

Category C bioterrorism agent

84

The ideal bioterror Weapon would be what?

1) Contagious
2) Virulent
3) Robust
4) Difficult to detect
5) drug-resistant
6) User-controllable

85

What natural agents meet the criteria of an ideal bioterror weapon?

None

86

What are the 8 common delivery methods of a bioterror weapon?

1) Food/ Water
2) Aircraft sprayers
3) Vehicle sprayers
4) Hand sprayers
5) Mail
6) Air handling system \
7)Human vector
8) Animal vector

87

what is an aerial bomb

-primitive biological weapon delivery device

88

How does an aerial bomb work?

Its thin fragile aluminium cylinders fill with nitrogen under pressure to create an aerosol and releases organisms when the bomb lands

89

Bioterrorism incidents are investigated and controlled by piecing together what information?

-clinical
-epidemiology
-and Laboratory information

90

what is mediastinitis?

inflammation of tissues in the mid-chest or mediastinium.

91

what bioterrorism agent causes Mediastinitis?

anthrax

92

What bioterrorism agent causes Pneumonia?

Plague

93

What bioterrorism agent causes Pleuritis?

Q fever

94

What us Pleuritis?

inflammation of the pleura, which is the moist double-layered membrane and that surrounds the lungs and lines the rib cage. This can make breathing extremely painful.

95

What bioterrorism agent causes hepatitis?

Q fever

96

What is hepatitis?

Characterized by inflammation of the liver

97

What bioterrorism agent causes Pneumonia?

Tulameria

98

What bioterrorism agent causes Pustules?

Smallpox

99

What are the initial symptoms of being infected with a bioterrorism agent category A?

-Head ache
-Fever
-Malaise
-Cough

100

What are the epidemiological clued of biological terrorism?

-tight cluster of cases
-High infection rate
-Unusual or localized geography
-Unusual time of the year
-Dead animals

101

The initial symptoms of category A bioterrorism agents are similar to symptoms of what?

influenza-like illness

102

If you suspect a bioterrorist disease what should you do?

Immediately notify:
-Hospital control
-isolation
-Laboratory
-Hospital administration
-Local Public health department

103

For what bioterrorism diesease do you need to be isolated?

-small pox
-plague
-hemorrhagic fever

104

For what symptoms should you actually think a disease associated with bioterrorism

-widened mediastinum on thoracic radiograph

-Influenza-like illness in summer months

-Pneumonia death in otherwise healthy young adults

-Vesicular rash that starts on extremitites

-Hemorrhagic fever syndrome

-Cluster of unusual, severe or unexplained illness

-Unexplained critical illness in otherwise healthy young adults

105

If there is a widen mediatinuim on thoraic radiograph then you may be able to suspect what?

Disease associated with bioterrorism agent

106

If you develop influenza-like illness in the summer months you may be able to suspect what?

Disease associated with bioterrorism agent

107

If pneumonia death occurs in otherwise healthy young adults you may be able to suspect what?

Disease associated with bioterrorism

108

If a vesicular rash starting out in the extremities developes you may be able to suspect what?

Disease associated with bioterrorism

109

If hemorrhagic fever develops you may be able to suspect what?

Disease associated with bioterrorism

110

If there is a cluster of unusual, severe or unexplained illness you may be able to suspect what?

Disease associated with bioterrorism

111

If there is unexplained critical illness in other wise healthy young adults you may be able to suspect what?

Disease associated with bioterrorism

112

Assesing helth impacts is what?

something done by Public Health in a bioterrorist event

113

Environemtal health asses water safety and sanitation as a response to waht?

Bioterrorist event

114

Public health nurses coordinate with whom in an bioterrorist event?

Shelter operation

115

During a bioterrorist whom in public health tracks infectious disease?

Acute communicable disease

116

During a Bioterrorist event the public health group injury program does what?

tracks injuries and fatalities

117

What does the Health officer do during a bioterrorist event?

coordinates information for the public and health care providers

118

Public health laboratories do what during a bioterorrist event?

identify agents (either in-house or through referral to State governments or health authorities)

119

In preparation for a Bioterrorism attack what does the medical staff do?

familiarize themselves with bioterrorism agents

120

In preparation for a bioterrorism attack what supplies are stockpiled?

-antibiotics
-immune sera
-vaccines
-etc.

121

How is a bioterrorism attack prepared for?

-Familiarize staff with BT agents

-Incorparate attack into disaster planning

-Decontamination and infection Control

-Communication with key agencies

-Laboratory, Respective health authorities of the nation

-Contacts to obtain stock piled supplies

-security preperations

122

Identifying a covert attack is an issue of what?

challenge dealing with Bioterror attack

123

Social disruption is an issue of what?

challenge dealing with Bioterror attack

124

What does prophylaxis mean?

Action taken to prevent disease

125

Prophylaxis for large population is an issue of what?

challenge dealing with Bioterror attack

126

Decontamination is an issue of what?

challenge dealing with bioterror attack

127

Secondary transmission is an issue of what?

Challenge dealing with bioterrorism attack

128

Risks of lab workers is an issue of what?

challenge dealing with BT attack

129

Limited resources is an issue of what?

Challenge dealing with bioterrorism attack

130

Communication between agencies is an issue of what?

challenge dealing with bioterrorism attack

131

Specialized labs need for some agents is an issue of what?

Challenge dealing with bioterrorism attack

132

What is Bio surveillance?

Is Real-Time-Outbreak Disease surveillance system used for early detection

133

What year did Bio surveillance make its debut?

1999

134

Bioterrorism threats are often directed towards what?

threats often directed towards elements of the private sector long ignored by the department of Defense and Department of Homeland security

135

Forensic teams work hard to identify what?

biological agents, their origins and their effects

136

Wyatt-Lorenze is what?

A bio survelliance technology corporation

137

What is the mission of the Wyatt-Lorenze system?

To provide immediate bioterrorism bioagent warning systems for the protection of people and property from biological and chemical threat.

138

Level A labs do what?

-Assess risks for aerosols and uses biosaftey cabinet
-Adequately safety to rule-out and foward organisms

139

Level B labs do what?

-Work at BSL-3 with BT agents
-Safety and proficiency adequate to confirm and characterize susceptibility

140

Level C labs do what?

- BSL-3
-Safety and proficiency sufficient to probe, type, perform toxigenicity testing

141

Level D labs do what?

- BSL-4
-Safety and proficiency to probe for universe of bio- and chemical agents in non-clinical specimens
-High level characterization (seek evidence of molecular chimeras) and secure banking of isolates

142

How can a hospital prepare for a BT attack?

-familiarize hospital staffwith BT agents

-Incorporate BT planning into disaster planning

-Infection control

-Notification procedure and contact numbers

-Daily surveillance and reporting

-Media

-Personal protection Equipment (PEE)

143

What does community health and PHN's provide during a BT event?

provides education, information to the public and to community providers

144

Treatment and prophylaxis is a role of whom during a BT attack?

Role of Public health

145

Who was the president when the Project Bio shield ACt of 2004 was signed?

George W. Bush

146

Former President George W. bush gave $5.6 billion spending for what?

in case of national biological emergency

147

Former President George W. bush gave the National Institute of Health grants to do what?

purse medical research and technology

148

Emergency use authorization (EUA) gave what?

access to best medical response in case of emergency as declared by the Secretory of Human Healthy and Services OR Secretary of Homeland Security.

149

Suppling diagnostic reagents to state and local public health agencies is what?

A step in preparing public health agencies for BT attacks

150

Establish communication programs to ensure delivery of accurate information is what?

Step in preparing Public Health agencies for BT attack