Bites and stings: complications and management Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Bites and stings: complications and management Deck (9)
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1

Bees and wasps

Anaphylaxis

Antihistamines and steroids; IM epinephrine if anaphylaxis develops

2

Spiders

Necrosis, hypocalcemia

Supportive measures; antivenom if available. Surgical resection and skin grafts for severe necrosis

3

Scorpions

In severe cases, cranial nerve dysfunction, excessive motor activity, respiratory compromise

Supportive with benzodiazepines and analgesics; atropine for hypersalivation and respiratory distress (not to be used with foreign scorpion stings); IV scorpion-specific antibody

4

Snakes

Venom poisoning

Antivenom is the mainstay of treatment. Elevate the affected limb above the heart. Compression bands help, but tourniquets are contraindicated. Suction and incision are dangerous and should not be done.

5

Dogs and cats

Infection, rabies/tetanus

Amoxicillin / clavulanate for puncture wounds, bites to hands/feet, and high-risk or immunocompromised patients.

6

Humans

Infection

Amoxicillin / clavulanate unless very minor

7

Rodents

Low risk of infection; not known to carry rabies

Local wound care

8

Bats, skunks, raccoons, ferrets, dogs, cats

Rabies

If an animal displays signs of rabies, administer 1 dose of human rabies immune globulin and 4 doses of rabies vaccine over 14 days if the patient has never been vaccinated.

Previously vaccinated patients do not need immune globulin and require only 2 doses of vaccine

9

Any wound

Tetanus

Administer tetanus toxoid if the patient had ≤ 3 lifetime toxoids and the las was ≥ 10 years ago for a minor / clean wound, or ≥ 5 years for all other wounds.

Administer tetanus immune globulin only if wound is major/dirty, and the patient had ≤ 3 lifetime toxoids.