Drug Withdrawal: Symptoms and Treatment Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Drug Withdrawal: Symptoms and Treatment Deck (5)
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1

Alcohol

Tremor (6-12 hours).

Tachycardia, hypertension, agitation, seizures (within 48 hours).

Hallucinations, Delirium Tremens--severe autonomic instability leading to tachycardia, delirium, and possibly death (within 2-7 days). Mortality is 15-20%.

Tx: BENZODIAZEPINES (can require massive doses); haloperidol for hallucinations; THIAMINE, folate, and multivitamin replacement (do not affect withdrawal, but most alcoholics are deficient).

2

Barbiturates

Anxiety, seizures, delirium, tremor; tachycardia and hypertension

Tx: Benzodiazepines

3

Benzodiazepines

Rebound anxiety, seizures, tremor, insomnia

Tx: BDZ taper

4

Cocaine / amphetamines

Depression, hyperphagia, hypersomnolence

Supportive Treatment. Avoid pure beta-blockers (may lead to unopposed alpha activity, causing hypertension).

5

Opioids

Anxiety, insomnia, flu-like symptoms, piloerection, fever, rhinorrhea, lacrimation, yawning, nausea, stomach cramps, diarrhea, mydriasis

Tx: antiemetics, muscle relaxers, and NSAIDS for mild symptoms; clonidine, buprenorphine, or methadone for moderate to severe symptoms.