Flashcards in Neurology_RR Deck (28)
Unilateral, severe periorbital headache with tearing and conjunctival erythema
Prophylactic treatment for migraine
Antihypertensives, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, dietary changes
The most common pituitary tumor. Treatment?
Dopamine agonists (eg, bromocriptine)
A 55-year-old patient presents with acute "broken speech." What type of aphasia? What lobe and vascular distribution?
Broca's aphasia. Frontal Lobe, left MCA distribution
The most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage
Trauma; the second most common cause is a berry aneurysm
A crescent-shaped hyperdensity on CT that does not cross the midline
Subdural hematoma--bridging veins torn
A history significant for initial altered mental status with an intervening lucid interval. Diagnosis? Most likely source? Treatment?
Epidural hematoma. Middle meningeal artery. Neurosurgical evacuation
CSF findings with subarachnoid hemorrhage
Elevated intracranial pressure, RBCs, xanthochromia
(Increased protein in CSF without a significant increase in cell count)
Cold water is flushed into a patient's ear, and the fast phase of the nystagmus is towards the opposite side. Normal or pathologic?
The most common primary sources of metastases to the brain
Lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney, GI tract
May be seen in children who are accused of inattention in class and confused with ADHD
The most frequent presentation of intracranial neoplasm
Primary neoplasms are much less common than brain metastases
The most common cause of seizures in children (2-10 years)
Infection, febrile seizures, trauma, idiopathic
The most common cause of seizures in young adults (18-35 years)
Trauma, alcohol withdrawal, brain tumor
First-line medication for status epilepticus
Confusion, confabulation, ophthalmoplegia, ataxia
Wernicke's encephalopathy due to a deficiency of thiamine
What percent lesion is an indication for carotid endarterectomy?
70%, if the stenosis is symptomatic
The most common cause of dementia
Alzheimer's and multi-infarct
A combined upper motor lesion and lower motor lesion disorder
Rigidity and stiffness with unilateral resting tremor and masked facies
The mainstay of Parkinson's therapy
Treatment for Guillain-Barré syndrome
IVIG or plasmapharesis. Avoid steroids
Rigidity and stiffness that progress to choreiform movements, accompanied by moodiness and altered behavior
A 6-year-old girl presents with a port-wine stain in the V1 distribution as well as with mental retardation, seizures, and ipsilateral leptomeningeal angioma. Diagnosis? Cause? Treatment?
Possible focal cerebral resection of the affected lobe.
Multiple café-au-lait spots on skin
Neurofibromatosis type 1
Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, and hyperdocility
Klüver-Bucy syndrome (amygdala)