Neurology_RR Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Neurology_RR Deck (28)
1

Unilateral, severe periorbital headache with tearing and conjunctival erythema

Cluster headache

2

Prophylactic treatment for migraine

Antihypertensives, antidepressants, anticonvulsants, dietary changes

3

The most common pituitary tumor. Treatment?

Prolactinoma
Dopamine agonists (eg, bromocriptine)

4

A 55-year-old patient presents with acute "broken speech." What type of aphasia? What lobe and vascular distribution?

Broca's aphasia. Frontal Lobe, left MCA distribution

5

The most common cause of subarachnoid hemorrhage

Trauma; the second most common cause is a berry aneurysm

6

A crescent-shaped hyperdensity on CT that does not cross the midline

Subdural hematoma--bridging veins torn

7

A history significant for initial altered mental status with an intervening lucid interval. Diagnosis? Most likely source? Treatment?

Epidural hematoma. Middle meningeal artery. Neurosurgical evacuation

8

CSF findings with subarachnoid hemorrhage

Elevated intracranial pressure, RBCs, xanthochromia

9

Albuminocytologic dissociation

Guillain-Barré Syndrome
(Increased protein in CSF without a significant increase in cell count)

10

Cold water is flushed into a patient's ear, and the fast phase of the nystagmus is towards the opposite side. Normal or pathologic?

Normal

11

The most common primary sources of metastases to the brain

Lung, breast, skin (melanoma), kidney, GI tract

12

May be seen in children who are accused of inattention in class and confused with ADHD

Absence seizures

13

The most frequent presentation of intracranial neoplasm

Headache.
Primary neoplasms are much less common than brain metastases

14

The most common cause of seizures in children (2-10 years)

Infection, febrile seizures, trauma, idiopathic

15

The most common cause of seizures in young adults (18-35 years)

Trauma, alcohol withdrawal, brain tumor

16

First-line medication for status epilepticus

IV benzodiazepine

17

Confusion, confabulation, ophthalmoplegia, ataxia

Wernicke's encephalopathy due to a deficiency of thiamine

18

What percent lesion is an indication for carotid endarterectomy?

70%, if the stenosis is symptomatic

19

The most common cause of dementia

Alzheimer's and multi-infarct

20

A combined upper motor lesion and lower motor lesion disorder

ALS

21

Rigidity and stiffness with unilateral resting tremor and masked facies

Parkinson's disease

22

The mainstay of Parkinson's therapy

Levodopa/carbidopa

23

Treatment for Guillain-Barré syndrome

IVIG or plasmapharesis. Avoid steroids

24

Rigidity and stiffness that progress to choreiform movements, accompanied by moodiness and altered behavior

Huntington's Disease

25

A 6-year-old girl presents with a port-wine stain in the V1 distribution as well as with mental retardation, seizures, and ipsilateral leptomeningeal angioma. Diagnosis? Cause? Treatment?

Sturge-Weber Syndrome.
Possible focal cerebral resection of the affected lobe.
Treat symptomatically.

26

Multiple café-au-lait spots on skin

Neurofibromatosis type 1

27

Hyperphagia, hypersexuality, hyperorality, and hyperdocility

Klüver-Bucy syndrome (amygdala)

28

May be administered to a symptomatic patient to diagnose myasthenia gravis

Edrophonium