Block 1 Chp. 10 The Eye Flashcards Preview

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Flashcards in Block 1 Chp. 10 The Eye Deck (109):
1

aque/o

water

2

blephar/o

eyelid

3

conjunctiv/o

conjunctiva (to join together)

4

corne/o, kerat/o

cornea

5

cycl/o

circle; ciliary body

6

ir/o, irid/o

colored circle, iris

7

lacram/o, dacry/o

tear

8

ocul/o. ophthalm/o, opt/o

eye

9

phac/o, phak/o

lens (lentil)

10

phot/o

light

11

presby/o

old age

12

retin/o

retina

13

scler/o

hard or sclera

14

vitre/o

glassy

15

-opia

condition of vision

16

anterior chamber

fluid-filled space between the cornea and iris

17

aqueous humor

watery liquid secreted by the ciliary processes that fills the anterior and posterior chambers of the eye and provides nourishment for the cornea, iris, and lens (humor= fluid)

18

canal of Schlemm

duct in the anterior chamber that carries filtered aqueous humor to the veins and bloodstream

19

choriod

vascular layer beneath the sclera that provides nourishment to the outer portion of the retina

20

ciliary body

ring of tissue behind the peipheral iris that is composed of ciliary muscle and ciliary processes

21

ciliary muscle

smooth muscle portion of the ciliary body, which contracts to assist in near vision

22

ciliary processes

epithelial tissue folds on the inner surface of the ciliary body that secrete aqueous humor

23

conjunctiva

mucous membrane that lines the eyelids and outer surface of the eyeball

24

cornea

transparent,anterior part of the eyeball covering the iris, pupil, and anterior chamber that functions to refract (bend) light to focus a visual image

25

eyelid; palpebra

movable, protective fold that opens and closes, covering the eye

26

fovea centralis

pinpoint depression in the center of the macula lutea that is the site of sharpest vision (fovea=pit)

27

fundus

interior surface of the eyeball, including the retina, optic disk, macula, and posterior pole (curvature at the back of the eye) (fundus=base)

28

glands of Zeis

oil glands surrounding the eyelashes

29

meibomian glands

oil glands located along the rim of the eyelids

30

iris

colored circle, colored part of the eye located behind the cornea that contracts and dilates to regulate light passing through the pupil

31

lacrimal gland

gland located in the upper outer region above the eyeball that secretes tears

32

lacrimal ducts

tubes that carry tears to the lacrimal sac

33

lacrimal sac

structure that collects tears before emptying into the nasolacrimal duct

34

lens

transparent structure behind the pupil that bends and focuses light rays on the retina

35

lens capsule

capsule that encloses the lens

36

macula lutea; macula

central region of the retina, responsible for central vision, yellow pigment provides its color (lutea=yellow)

37

nasolacrimal duct

passageway for tears from the lacrimal sac into the nose

38

optic disk

exit site of retinal nerve fibers as well as entrance point for retinal arteries and exit point for retinal veins

39

optic nerve

nerve responsible for carrying impulses for the sense of sight from the retina to the brain

40

posterior chamber

space between the back of the iris and the front of the vitreous chamber, filled with aqueous humor

41

pupil

black, circular opening in the center of the iris through which light passes as it enters the eye

42

retina

innermost layer that perceives and transmits light to the optic nerve

43

cones

cone-shaped cels within the retina that are color sensitive and respond to bright light

44

rods

rod-shaped cells within the retina that respond to dim light

45

sclera

tough, fibrous, white outer coat extending from the cornea to the optic nerve

46

trabecular meshwork

mesh-like structure in the anterior chamber that filters the aqueous humor as it flows into the canal of Schlemm

47

vitreous

jelly-like mass filling the inner chamber between the lens and retina that gives bulk to the eye

48

asthenopia

eyestrain (asthenia=weak condition)

49

blepharospasm

involuntary contraction of the muscles surrounding the eye causing uncontrolled blinking and lid squeezing

50

diplopia

double vision

51

exophthalmos, exophthalmus

abnormal protusion of one or both eyelids

52

lacrimation

secretion of tears

53

nystagmus

involuntary, rapid, oscillating movement of the eyeball (nystagmos=a nodding)

54

photophobia

extreme sensitivity to, and discomfort from, light

55

scotoma

blind spot in vision (skotos=darkness)

56

refractive errors

defects in the bending of light as it enters the eye, causing an improper focus on the retina

57

astigmatism

distorted vision caused by an oblong or cylindrical curvature of the lens or cornea that prevents light rays from coming to a single focus on the retina (stigma=point)

58

hyperopia

farsightedness; difficulty seeing close objects when light rays are focused on a point behind the retina

59

myopia

nearsightedness; difficulty seeing distant objects when light rays are focused on a point in front of the retina

60

presbyopia

impaired vision caused by old age or loss of accommodation

61

accommodation

ability of the eye to adjust focus on near objects

62

amblyopia

decreased vision in early life because of a functional defect that can occur as a result of strabismus, refractive errors (when one eye is more nearsighted, farsighted, or astigmatic than the other), or trauma; usually occurs in one eye; also known as lazy eye (ambly/o=dim)

63

aphakia

absence of the lens, usually after cataract extraction

64

blepharitis

inflammation of the eyelid

65

blepharochalasis; dermatochalasis

baggy eyelid; overbundance and loss of skin elasticity on the upper eyelid causing a fold of skin to hang down over the edge of the eyelid when the eyes are open (chalasis= a slackening)

66

blepharoptosis; ptosis

drooping of the eyelid; usually caused by paralysis

67

chalazion

chronic nodular inflammation of a meibomian gland, usually the result of a blocked duct; commonly presents as a swelling on the upper or lower eyelid (chalaza= hailstone)

68

cataract

opaque clouding of the lens causing decreased vision

69

conjunctivitis

pinkeye; inflammation of the conjunctiva

70

dacryoadenitis

inflammation of the lacrimal gland

71

dacryocystitis

inflammation of he tear sac

72

diabetic retinopathy

disease of the retina diabetics characterized by capillary leakage, bleeding, and new vessel formation (neovascularization) leading to scarring and loss of vision

73

ectropion

outward turning of the rim of the eyelid (tropo=turning)

74

entropion

inward turning of the rim of the eyelid

75

epiphora

abnormal overflow of tears caused by blockage of the lacrimal duct (epi=upon, phero=to bear)

76

glaucoma

group of diseases of the eye characterized by increased intraocular pressure that results in damage to the optic nerve, producing defects in vision

77

hordeolum

sty; an acute infection of a sebaceous gland of the eyelid (hordeum=barley)

78

iritis

inflammation of the iris

79

keratitis

inflammation of the cornea

80

macular degeneration

breakdown or thinning of the tissues in the macula, resulting in partial or complete loss of central vision

81

pseudophakia

an eye in which the natural lens is replaced with an artificial lens implant (pseudo=fake)

82

pterygium

fibrous, wing-shaped growth of conjunctival tissue that extends onto the cornea, developing most commonly from prolonged exposure to ultraviolet light

83

retinal detachment

separation of the retina from the underlying epithelium, disrupting vision and resulting in blindness if not repaired surgically

84

retinitis

inflammation of the retina

85

strabismus; heterotropia

a condition of eye misalignment caused by intraocular muscle imbalance (strabismus=a squinting, hetero=other)

86

esotropia

right or left eye deviated inward, toward nose (eso= inward, tropo=turning)

87

exotropia

right or left eye deviates outward, away from nose (exo=out; tropo=turning)

88

scleritis

inflammation of the sclera

89

trichiasis

misdirected eyelashes that rub on the conjunctiva or cornea

90

distance visual acuity

measure of the ability to see the details and shape of identifiable objects from a specified distance, usually from 20 feet (6 meters) normal distance visual acuity is 20/20 (6/6)

91

fluorescein angiography

visualization and photography of retinal and choroidal vessels made as fluorescein dye, which is injected into a vein, circulates through the eye

92

ophthalmoscopy

use of an ophthalmoscope to view the interior of the eye

93

slit lamp biomicroscopy

use of a tabletop microscope used to examine the eye, especially the cornea, lens, fluids, and membranes

94

sonography

use of high-frequency sound waves to detect pathology within the eye (e.g. foreign bodies and detached retina)

95

tonometry

use of a tonometer to measure intraocular pressure, which is elevated in glaucoma

96

iridotomy

incision into the iris (usually with a laser) to allow drainage of aqueous humor from the posterior to anterior chamber; used to treat a type of glaucoma

97

keratoplasty

corneal transplantation; replacement of a diseased or scarred cornea with a healthy one from a matched donor

98

laser surgery

use of a laser to make incisions or destroy tissues; used to create fluid passages or obliterate tumors, aneurysms, etc.

99

laser-assisted in situ keratomileusis (LASIK)

a technique using the excimer laser to reshape the surface of the cornea to correct refractive error (myopia, hyperopia, astigmatism) (smileusis=carving)

100

intraocular lens (IOL) implant

implantation of an artificial lens to replace a defective natural lens (e.g. after cataract extraction)

101

phacoemulsification

use of ultrasound to shatter and break up a cataract, with aspiration and removal

102

scleral buckling

surgery to treat retinal detachment by placing a band of silicone around the sclera to cinch it toward the middle of the eye and relieve pull on the retina; often combined with other techniques to seal retinal tears (e.g. cryoretinaopexy)

103

contact lens

small, plastic, curved disk with optical correction that fits over the cornea, used to correct refractive errors

104

eye instillation

introduction of a medicated solution in the eye, usually administered by a drop (gt) or drops (gtt) in the affected eye or eyes

105

eye irrigation

washing of the eye with water or other fluid (e.g.saline)

106

antibiotic ophthalmic solution

antimicrobial agent in solution; used to treat bacterial infections (e.g. conjunctivitis and corneal ulcers)

107

cycloplegic

agent that paralyzes the ciliary muscle and the powers of accommodation; commonly used in pediatric eye examinations

108

mydriatic

agent that causes dilation of the pupil, used for certain eye examinations

109

miotic

agent that causes the pupil to contract (mio=less)