Block 3 Chp. 4 Musculoskeletal System Flashcards Preview

Med Term > Block 3 Chp. 4 Musculoskeletal System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Block 3 Chp. 4 Musculoskeletal System Deck (195):
1

ankyl/o

crooked or stiff

2

arthr/o

joint

3

articul/o

joint

4

brachi/o

arm

5

cervic/o

neck

6

chondr/o

cartilage (gristle)

7

cost/o

rib

8

crani/o

skull

9

dactyl/o

digit (finger or toe)

10

fasci/o

fascia (a band)

11

femor/o

femur

12

fibr/o

fiber

13

kyph/o

humped-back

14

lei/o

smooth

15

lord/o

bent

16

lumb/o

loin (lower back)

17

my/o

muscle

18

myos/o

muscle

19

muscul/o

muscle

20

myel/o

bone marrow, spinal cord

21

oste/o

bone

22

patell/o

knee cap

23

pelv/i

pelvis (basin), hip bone

24

radi/o

radius

25

rhabd/o

rod-shaped, striated (skeletal)

26

sarc/o

flesh

27

scoli/o

twisted

28

spondyl/o

vertebra

29

vertebr/o

vertebra

30

stern/o

sternum (breastbone)

31

ten/o

tendon (to stretch)

32

tend/o

tendon (to stretch)

33

tendin/o

tendon (to stretch)

34

thorac/o

chest

35

ton/o

tone, tension

36

uln/o

ulna

37

bones of the shoulder, pelvis, and upper and lower extremities

appendicular skeleton

38

bones of the skull, vertebral column, chest, and hyoid bone (U-shaped bone at base of tongue)

axial skeleton

39

specialized connective tissue composed of osteocytes (bone cells); forms the skeleton

bone

40

tightly solid bone tissue that forms the exterior of bones

compact bone

41

mesh-like bone tissue found in the interior of bones, and surrounding the medullary cavity

spongy bone, cancellous bone

42

bones of the arms and legs

long bones

43

bones of the wrist and ankles

short bones

44

bones of the ribs, shoulder blades, pelvis, and skull

flat bones

45

bones of the vertebrae and face

irregular bones

46

round bones found near joints (ex.: patella)

sesamoid bones

47

wide ends of a long bone

epiphysis

48

shaft of a long bone

diaphysis

49

growth zone between the epiphysis and the diaphysis during development of a long bone

metaphysis

50

membrane lining the medullary cavity of a bone

endosteum

51

cavity within the shaft of the long bones; filled with bone marrow

medullary cavity

52

soft connective tissue within the medullary cavity of bones

bone marrow

53

functions to form red blood cells, some white blood cells, and platelets; found in the cavities of most bones in infants and in the flat bones in adults

red bone marrow

54

gradually replaces red bone marrow in adult bones; functions as storage for fat tissue and is inactive in the formation of blood cells

yellow bone marrow

55

a fibrous, vascular membrane that covers the bone

periosteum

56

a gristle-like substance on bones where they articulate

articular cartilage

57

a joint; the point where two bones come together

articulation

58

a fibrous sac between certain tendons and bones that is lined with a synovial membrane that secretes synovial fluid

bursa

59

a flat, plate-like structure composed of fibrocartilaginous tissue between the vertebrae that reduces friction

disk (disc)

60

the soft, fibrocartilaginous, central portion of intervertebral disk

nucleus pulposus

61

a flexible band of fibrous tissue that connects bone to bone

ligament

62

membrane lining the capsule of a joint

synovial membrane

63

joint-lubricating fluid secreted by the synovial membrane

synovial fluid

64

tissue composed of fibers that can contract, causing movement of an organ or part of the body

muscle

65

voluntary muscle attached to the skeleton

striated muscle, skeletal muscle

66

involuntary muscle found in internal organs

smooth muscle

67

muscle of the heart

cardiac muscle

68

muscle end attached to the bone that does not move when the muscle contracts

origin of a muscle

69

muscle end attached to the bone that moves when the muscle contracts

insertion of a muscle

70

a band of fibrous tissue that connects muscle to bone

tendon

71

a band or sheet of fibrous connective tissue that covers, supports, and separates muscle

fascia

72

a term of reference that health professionals use when noting body planes, positions, or directions: the person is assumed to be standing upright (erect), facing forward, feet pointed forward and slightly apart, with arms at the sides and palms facing forward; the patient is visualized in this pose when applying any other term of reference

anatomic/anatomical position

73

reference planes for indicating the location or direction of body parts

body planes

74

vertical division of the body into front (anterior) and back (posterior) portions

coronal plane, frontal plane

75

vertical division of the body into right and left portions

sagittal plane

76

horizontal division of the body into upper and lower portions

transverse plane

77

front of the body

anterior (A), ventral

78

back of the body

posterior (P), dorsal

79

from front to back, as in reference to the direction of an x-ray beam

anterior-posterior (AP)

80

from back to front, as in reference to the direction of an x-ray beam

posterior-anterior (PA)

81

situated above another structure, toward the head

superior, cephalic

82

situated below another structure, away from the head

inferior, caudal

83

toward the beginning or origin of a structure; for example, the _________ aspect of the femur is the area closest to where it attaches to the hip

proximal

84

away from the beginning or origin of a structure; for example, the _______ aspect of the femur is the area at the end of the bone near the knee

distal

85

toward the middle (midline)

medial

86

toward the side

lateral

87

the imaginary line that runs through the center of the body or a body part

axis

88

normal standing position

erect

89

lying down, especially in a bed; lateral _________ is lying on the side

decubitus

90

lying face down and flat

prone

91

lying down

recumbent

92

horizontal recumbent; lying flat on the back

supine

93

bending at the joint so that the angle between the bones is decreased

flexion

94

straightening at the joint so that the angle between the bones is increased

extension

95

movement away from the body

abduction

96

movement toward the body

adduction

97

circular movement around an axis

rotation

98

turning outward (ie, of a foot)

eversion

99

turning inward (ie, of a foot)

inversion

100

turning of the palmar surface (palm of the hand) or plantar surface (sole of the foot) downward or backward

pronation

101

turning of the palmar surface (palm of the hand) or plantar surface (sole of the foot) upward or forward

supination

102

bending of the foot or the toes upward

dorsiflexion

103

bending of the sole of the foot by curling the toes toward the ground

plantar flexion

104

total motion possible in a joint, described by the terms related to body movements (ie, ability to flex, extend, abduct, or adduct); measured in degrees

range of motion (ROM)

105

instrument used to measure joint angles

goniometer

106

joint pain

arthralgia

107

shrinking of muscle size

atrophy

108

grating sound sometimes made by the movement of a joint or broken bones

crepitation, crepitus

109

a projection arising from a bone that develops from cartilage

exostosis

110

flabby, relaxed, or having defective or absent muscle tone

flaccid

111

increase in the size of tissue, such as muscle

hypertrophy

112

reduced muscle tone or tension

hypotonia

113

muscle pain

myalgia, myodynia

114

bone pain

ostealgia, osteodynia

115

stiffness; stiff muscle

rigor, rigidity

116

drawing in; involuntary contraction of muscle

spasm

117

uncontrolled contractions of skeletal muscles, causing stiff and awkward movements (resembles spasm)

spastic

118

tension; prolonged, continuous muscle contraction

tetany

119

shaking; rhythmic muscular movement

tremor

120

stiff joint condition

ankylosis

121

inflammation of the joints characterized by pain, swelling, redness, warmth, and limitation of motion; there are more than 100 types of this

arthritis

122

most common from of arthritis, especially affecting the weight-bearing joints, characterized by the erosion of articular cartilage

osetoarthritis (OA), degenerative arthritis, degenerative joint disease (DJD)

123

most crippling form of arthritis; characterized by chronic, systemic inflammation, most often affecting joints and synovial membranes (especially in the hands and feet) and causing ankylosis and deformity

rheumatoid arthritis (RA)

124

acute attacks of arthritis, usually in a single joint (especially the great toe), caused by hyperuricemia (an excessive level of uric acid in the blood)

gouty arthritis

125

bone tissue that has died from loss of blood supply, such as can occur after a fracture

bony necrosis, sequestrum

126

swelling of the joint at the base of the great toe caused by inflammation of the bursa

bunion

127

inflammation of a bursa

bursitis

128

softening of cartilage

chondromalacia

129

inflammation of the epiphyseal regions of the long bone

epiphysitis

130

broken or cracked bone

fracture (Fx)

131

broken bone with no open wound

closed fracture

132

compound fracture; broken bone with an open wound

open fracture

133

nondisplaced fracture with one fracture line that does not require extensive treatment to repair (eg, hairline fracture, stress fracture, crack)

simple fracture

134

displaced fracture that requires manipulation or surgery to repair

complex fracture

135

the line of the break in a broken bone

fracture line

136

broken in many small pieces

comminuted fracture

137

bending and incomplete break of a bone; most often seen in children

greenstick fracture

138

protrusion of a degenerated or fragmented intervertebral disk so that the nucleus pulposus protrudes, causing compression on the nerve root

herniated disk

139

bone marrow tumor

myeloma

140

inflammation of muscle

myositis

141

muscle tumor

myoma

142

smooth muscle tumor

leiomyoma

143

malignant smooth muscle tumor

leiomyosarcoma

144

skeletal muscle tumor

rhabdomyoma

145

malignant skeletal muscle tumor

rhabdomyosarcoma

146

a category of genetically transmitted disease characterized by progressive atrophy of skeletal muscles; Duchenne type is most common

muscular dystrophy

147

bone tumor

osteoma

148

type of malignant bone tumor

osteosarcoma

149

disease marked by softening of the bone caused by calcium and vitamin D deficiency

osteomalacia

150

osteomalacia in children; causes bone deformity

rickets

151

infection of bone and bone marrow, causing inflammation

osteomyelitis

152

condition of decreased bone density and increased porosity, causing bones to become brittle and to fracture more easily

osteoporosis

153

curvatures of the spine or spinal column

spinal curvatures

154

abnormal posterior curvature of the thoracic spine (humped-back condition)

kyphosis

155

abnormal anterior curvature of the lumbar spine (sway-back condition)

lordosis

156

abnormal lateral curvature of the spine (S-shaped curve)

scoliosis

157

forward slipping of a lumbar vertebra

spondylolisthesis

158

stiff, immobile condition of vertebrae caused by joint degeneration

spondylosis

159

injury to a ligament caused by joint trauma but without joint dislocation or fracture

sprain

160

partial dislocation

subluxation

161

inflammation of a tendon

tendinitis, tendonitis

162

a neurodiagnostic, graphic record of the electrical activity of muscle both at rest and during contraction; used to diagnose neuromusculoskeletal disorders; usually performed by a neurologist

electromyogram (EMG)

163

a nonionizing (no x-ray) imaging technique using magnetic fields and radiofrequency waves to visualize anatomic structures; useful in orthopedic studies to detect joint, tendon, and vertebral disk disorders

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

164

an ionizing imaging technique using radioactive isotopes

nuclear medicine imaging, radionuclide organ imaging

165

a nuclear scan (radionuclide image) of bone tissue to detect a tumor, malignancy, etc

bone scan

166

an imaging modality using x-rays (ionizing radiation); commonly used in orthopedics to visualize the extremities, ribs, back, shoulders, and joints

radiography

167

a radiograph of a joint taken after the injection of a contrast medium

arthrogram

168

a specialized x-ray procedure producing a series of cross-sectional images that are processed by a computer into a two-dimensional or three-dimensional image

computed tomography (CT), computed axial tomography (CAT)

169

ultrasound imaging; a nonionizing technique that is useful in orthopedics to visualize muscles, ligaments, displacements, and dislocations or to guide a therapeutic intervention, such as that performed during arthroscopy

sonography

170

partial or complete removal of a limb

amputation

171

puncture for aspiration of a joint

arthrocentesis

172

binding or fusing of joint surfaces

arthrodesis

173

repair or reconstruction of a joint

arthroplasty

174

procedure using an arthroscope to examine, diagnose, and repair a joint from within

arthroscopy

175

transplantation of a piece of bone from one site to another to repair a skeletal defect

bone grafting

176

excision of a bursa

bursectomy

177

repair of muscle

myoplasty

178

internal surgical repair of a fracture by bringing bones back into alignment and fixing them in place with devices such as plates, screws, and pins

open reduction, internal fixation (ORIF) of a fracture

179

repair of bone

osteoplasty

180

an incision into bone

osteotomy

181

spinal fusion

spondylosyndesis

182

division of a tendon by incision to repair a deformity caused by shortening of a muscle

tenotomy

183

external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment along with application of an external device to protect and hold the bone in place while healing

closed reduction, external fixation of a fracture

184

use of a stiff, solid dressing around a limb or other body part to immobilize it during healing

casting

185

use of a rigid device to immobilize or restrain a broken bone or injured body part; provides less support than a cast, but can be adjusted more easily to accommodate swelling from an injury

splinting

186

application of a pulling force to a fractured bone or dislocated joint to maintain proper position during healing

traction (Tx)

187

external manipulation of a fracture to regain alignment, followed by insertion of one or more pins through the skin to maintain position; often includes use of an external device called a fixator to keep the fracture immobilized during healing

closed reduction, percutaneous fixation of a fracture

188

use of an orthopedic appliance to maintain a bone's position or to provide limb support

orthosis

189

treatment to rehabilitate patients disabled by illness or injury; involves many different modalities (methods), such as exercise, hydrotherapy, diathermy, and ultrasound

physical therapy (PT)

190

an artificial replacement for a missing body part or a device used to improve a body function, such as an artificial limb, hip, or joint

prosthesis

191

a drug that relieves pain

analgesic

192

a potent analgesic with addictive properties

narcotic

193

a drug that reduces inflammation

antiinflammatory

194

a drug that relieves fever

antipyretic

195

a group of drugs with analgesic, antiinflammatory, and antipyretic properties commonly used to treat arthritis

nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drug (NSAID)