Block 1 Chp. 12 GI Flashcards Preview

Med Term > Block 1 Chp. 12 GI > Flashcards

Flashcards in Block 1 Chp. 12 GI Deck (208):
1

abdomin/o

abdomen

2

celi/o

abdomen

3

lapar/o

abdomen

4

an/o

anus

5

appendic/o

appendix

6

bil/i

bile

7

chol/e

bile

8

bucc/o

cheek

9

cheil/o

lip

10

col/o, colon/o

colon

11

cyst/o

bladder, sac

12

dent/i

teeth

13

doch/o

duct

14

duoden/o

duodenum

15

enter/o

small intestine

16

esophag/o

esophagus

17

gastr/o

stomach

18

gingiv/o

gum

19

gloss/o

tongue

20

lingu/o

tongue

21

hepat/o, hepatic/o

liver

22

herni/o

hernia

23

ile/o

ileum

24

jejun/o

jejunum (empty)

25

lith/o

stone

26

or/o

mouth

27

stomat/o

mouth

28

pancreat/o

pancreas

29

peritone/o

peritoneum

30

phag/o

eat, swallow

31

proct/o

anus, rectum

32

pylor/o

pylorus (gatekeeper)

33

rect/o

rectum

34

sial/o

saliva

35

sigmoid/o

sigmoid colon (resembles)

36

steat/o

fat

37

#NAME?

vomiting

38

cavity that receives food for digestion

oral cavity or mouth

39

three pairs of exocrine glands in the mouth that secrete saliva: the parotid, the submandibular (submaxillary), and the sublingual glands

salivary glands

40

lateral walls of the mouth

cheeks

41

fleshy structures surrounding the mouth

lips

42

structure that forms the roof of the mouth; divided in to the hard and the soft

palate

43

small projection hanging from teh back middle edge of he soft palate

uvula

44

muscular structure of the floor of the mouth covered by mucous membrane and secured by a band-like membrane known as the frenulum

tongue

45

tissue covering the processes of the jaws

gums

46

hard bony projections in the jaws for masticating food

teeth

47

throat; passageway for food traveling to the esophagus and for air traveling to the larynx

pharynx

48

muscular tube that moves food from the pharynx to the stomach

esophagus

49

sac-like organ that chemically mixes and prepares food received from the esophagus

stomach

50

opening from the esophagus to the stomach

cardiac sphincter

51

opening from the stomach into the duodenum

pyloric sphincter

52

smaller tubular structure that digests food received from the stomach

small intestine

53

first portion of the small intestine

duodenum

54

second portion of the small intestine

jejunum

55

third portion of the small intestin

ileum

56

larger tubular structure that receives the liquid waste products of digestion, reabsorbs water and minerals, and forms and stores feces for defecation

large intestine

57

first part of the large intestine

cecum

58

worm-like projection of lymphatic tissue hanging off the cecum with no digestive function; may help to resist infection

vermiform appendix

59

portions of the large intestine extending from the cecum to the rectum; identified by direction or shape

colon

60

portion of the colon that extends upward from the cecum

ascending colon

61

portion of the colon that extends across from the ascending cecum

transverse colon

62

portion of the colon that extends downward from teh transcerse colon

descending colon

63

portion of the colon (resembling an "S" in shape) that terminates at the rectum

sigmoid colon

64

distal (end) portion of the large intestine

rectum

65

dilated portion of the rectum just above the anal canal

rectal ampulla

66

opening of the rectum to the outside of the body

anus

67

waste formed by the absorption of water in the large intestine; usually solid

feces

68

evacuation of feces from the rectum

defecation

69

membrane surrounding the entire abdominal cavity and consisting of the parietal layer (lining the abdominal wall) and the visceral layer (covering each organ in the abdomen)

peritoneum

70

space between the parietal and visceral peritoneum

peritoneal cavity

71

an extension of the peritoneum attached to the stomach and connecting it with other abdominal organs

omentum

72

organ in the upper right quadrant that produces bile, which is secreted into the duodenum during digestion

liver

73

receptacle that stores and concentrates the bile produced in thd liver

gallbladder

74

gland that secretes pancreatic juice into the duodenum, where it mixes with bile to digest food

pancreas

75

ducts that convey bile; include the hepatic, cystic, and common bile ducts

biliary ducts

76

upper lateral regions beneath the ribs

hypochondriac regions

77

upper middle region below the sternum

epigastric region

78

middle lateral regions

lumbar regions

79

region of the navel

umbilical region

80

lower lateral groin regions

inguinal regions

81

region below the navel

hypogastric region

82

loss of appetite

anorexia

83

inability to swallow

aphagia

84

accumulation of fluid in the peritoneal cavity

ascites

85

in the cheek

buccal

86

frequent loose or liquid stools

diarrhea

87

infrequent of incomplete bowel movement characterized by hardened, dry stool that is difficult to pass

constipation

88

indigestion

dyspepsia

89

difficulty in swallowing

dysphagia

90

belch

eructation

91

gas in the stomach or intestines

flatulence

92

bad breath

halitosis

93

vomiting blood

hematemesis

94

red blood in stool

hematochezia

95

enlargement of the liver

hepatomegaly

96

excessive level of bilirubin (bile pigment) in the blood

hyperbilirubinemia

97

yellow discoloration of the skin, sclera (white of the eye), and other tissues caused by excessive bilirubin in the blood

jaundice, icterus

98

dark-colored, tarry stool caused by old blood

melena

99

feeling sick in the stomach

nausea

100

feces containing fat

steatorrhea

101

under the tongue

sublingual, hypoglossal

102

tongue-tie; a defect of the tongue characterized by a short, thick frenulum

ankyloglossia

103

inflammation of the lip

cheilitis

104

swollen, twisted veins in the esophagus that are especially susceptible to ulceration and hemorrhate

esophageal varices

105

inflammation of the esophagus

esophagitis

106

inflammation of the stomach

gastritis

107

backflow of contents of the stomach into the esophagus, often resulting from abnormal function of the lower esophageal sphincter, causing burning pain in the esophagus

gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD)

108

inflammation of the gums

gingivitis

109

inflammation of the tongue

glossitis

110

inflammation of the parotid gland; also called mumps

parotiditis, parotitis

111

sore on the mucous membrane of the stomach, duodenum, or any other part of the gastrointestinal system exposed to gastric juices; commonly caused by infection with Helicobacter pylori bacteria

peptic ulcer disease (PUD)

112

ulcer located in the stomach

gastric ulcer

113

ulcer located in the duodenum

duodenal ulcer

114

narrowed condition of the pylorus

pyloric stenosis

115

inflammation of the a salivary gland

sialoadenitis

116

inflammation of teh mouth

stomatitis

117

an abnormal, tube-like passageway from the anus that may connect with the rectum

anal fistula

118

inflammation of the appendix

appendicitis

119

inflammation of the colon (large intestine)

colitis

120

chronic inflammation of the colon with ulcerations

ulcerative colitis

121

benign tissue growths on the mucous membrane lining the large intestine and rectum; adenomatous types are precancerous and likely to develop into malignanacy

colorectal polyps

122

polyp projected on a stalk

pediculated polyp

123

polyp lying flat on a the surface

sessile polyp

124

an abnormal side pocket in the gastrointestinal tract; usually related to a lack of dietary fiber

diverticulum

125

presence of diverticula in the gastrointestinal tract, especially the colon

diverticulosis

126

inflammation of diverticula

diverticulitis

127

inflammation of the intestine characterized by frequent, bloody stools; most often caused by bacteria or protozoa

dysentery

128

inflammation of the small intestine

enteritis

129

swollen, twisted vein in the anal region

hemorrhoid

130

protrusion of a part from its normal location

hernia

131

protrusion of a part of the stomach upward through the opening in the diaphragm

hiatal hernia

132

protrusion of a loop of the intestine through layers of the abdominal wall in the inguinal region

inguinal hernia

133

hernia that is swollen and fixed within a sac, causing an obstruction

incarcerated hernia

134

hernia that is constricted, cut off from circulation, and likely to become gangrenous

strangulated hernia

135

protrusion of the intestine through a weakness in the abdominal wall around the umbilicus (navel)

umbilical hernia

136

inflammation of the lower portion of the small intestine

ileitis

137

prolapse of one part of the intestine into the lumen of the adjoining part

intussusception

138

inflammation of the peritoneum

peritonitis

139

inflammation of the rectum and the anus

proctitis

140

twisting of the bowel on itself, causing obstruction

volvulus

141

inflammation of the bile ducts

cholangitis

142

inflammation of the gallbladder

cholecystitis

143

presence of stones in the common bile duct

choledocholithiasis

144

presence of stones in the gallbladder of bile ducts

cholelithiasis

145

chronic disease characterized by degeneration of liver tissue; most often caused by alcoholism or a nutritional deficiency

cirrhosis

146

inflammation of the liver

hepatitis

147

inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis A virus (HAV), usually transmitted orally through fecal contamination of food or water

hepatitis A

148

inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis B virus (HBV), which is transmitted sexually or by exposure to contaminated blood or body fluids

hepatitis B

149

inflammation of the liver caused by the hepatitis C virus (HCV), which is transmitted by exposure to infected blood; this strain is rarely contracted sexually

hepatitis C

150

inflammation of the pancreas

pancreatitis

151

removal and microscopic study of tissue for pathological examination

biopsy (Bx)

152

removal of a portion of a lesion for study

incisional biopsy

153

removal of an entire lesion for study

excisional biopsy

154

percutaneous removal of tissue or fluid for study using a special, hollow needle

needle biopsy

155

examination within a body cavity with a flexible endoscope for diagnosis or treatment; used in the GI tract to detect abnormalities and to perform procedures such as biopsy, excision of lesions, and therapeutic interventions

endoscopy

156

examination of the colon using a flexible colonoscope

colonoscopy

157

examination of the rectum and anus with a proctoscope

proctoscopy

158

examination of the sigmoid colon with a rigid or flexible sigmoidoscope

sigmoidoscopy

159

examination of the lining of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum with a flexible endoscope for diagnostic and/or therapeutic purposes, such as biopsy, excision of lesions, removal of swallowed objects, dilation of obstructions, stent placement, measures to control hemorrhage, etc.

esophagogastroduodenoscopy (EGD)

160

examination of the small intestine made by a tiny video camera placed in a capsule and then swallowed; images are transmitted to a waist-belt recorder and then downloaded onto a computer for assessment of possible abnormalities; traditional endoscopy cannot completely access the small intestine because of its length and complexity

capsule endoscopy

161

endoscopic procedure including x-ray fluoroscopy to examine the ducts of the liver, gallbladder, biliary ducts, and pancreas; includes use of instruments to obtain tissues samples, extract biliary stones, relieve obstructions, etc.

endoscopic retrograde cholangiopancreatography (ERCP)

162

examination of the abdominal cavity with a laparoscope for diagnostic purposes and/or to perform surgery

laparoscopy

163

nonionizing imaging technique for visualizing the abdominal cavity to identify disease or deformity in the GI tract

magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)

164

x-ray imaging used to detect a condition or anomaly within the GI tract

radiography

165

x-ray of the esophagus, stomach, and duodenum after the patient has swallowed a contrast medium; barium is the most commonly used medium

upper gastrointestinal (GI) series

166

x-ray of the esophagus only; often used to locate swallowed objects

barium swallow

167

x-ray imaging with a fluorescent screen to visualize structures in motion

fluoroscopy

168

x-ray examination of the small intestine; generally done in conjunction with an upper GI series

small bowel series

169

x-ray imaging of the colon after administration of an enema containing a contrast medium

lower gastrointestinal (GI) series, barium enema

170

x-ray image of the bile ducts; often performed during surgery

cholangiogram

171

x-ray image of the gallbladder obtained after oral ingestion of iodine

cholecystogram

172

cross-sectional x-ray imaging of the abdomen used to identify a condition or anomaly within the gastrointestinal tract

computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen

173

ultrasound imaging

sonography

174

ultrasound image of the abdomen to detect disease or deformity in organs and vascular structures

abdominal sonogram

175

images produced using a sonographic transducer within an endoscope to evaluate abnormalities of the upper and lower GI tracts and adjacent structures; also used to guide needle biopsy of tissue and in determining the stage of a malignancy

endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS)

176

isolation of a stool specimen in a culture medium to identify disease-causing organisms; if organisms are present, the drugs to which they are sensitive are listed

stool culture and sensitivity (C&S)

177

chemical test of a stool specimen to detect the presence of blood; positive findings indicate bleeding in the GI tract

stool occult blood study

178

puncture of the abdomen for aspiration of fluid

abdominocentesis

179

puncture of the abdomen for aspiration of fluid in the peritoneal cavity (e.g., fluid accumulated in ascites)

abdominal paracentesis

180

excision of an anal fistula

anal fistulectomy

181

union of two hollow vessels; a technique used in bowel surgery

anastomosis

182

excision of a diseased appendix

appendectomy

183

treatment of morbid obesity by surgery to the stomach and/or intestines; procedures include restrictive techniques that limit the size of the stomach and malabsorptive techniques that limit the absorption of food

bariatric surgery

184

repair of the lip

cheiloplasty

185

excision of the gallbladder; common treatment for symptomatic gallbladder disease

cholecystectomy

186

excision of the gallbladder through a laparoscope

laparoscopic cholecystectomy

187

creation of an opening in the colon through the abdominal wall to create an abdominal anus, allowing stool to bypass a disease portion of the colon; performed to treat ulcerative colitis, cancer, or obstructions

colostomy

188

repair of the esophagus

esophagoplasty

189

partial or complete removal of the stomach

gastrectomy

190

partial removal and repair of the stomach

gastric resection

191

formation of an artificial opening between the stomach and small intestine; often performed at the time of gastrectomy to route food from the remainder of the stomach to the intestine; also performed to repair a perforated duedenal ulcer

gastroenterostomy

192

excision of all or part of the tongue

glossectomy

193

suture of the tongue

glossorrhaphy

194

excision of hemorrhoids

hemorrhoidectomy

195

excision of a lobe of the liver

hepatic lobectomy

196

repair of a hernia

herniorrhaphy, hernioplasty

197

surgical creation of an opening on the abdomen to which the end of the ileum is attached, providing a passageway for ileal discharges; performed after removal of the colon, such as to treat chronic inflammatory bowel dieseases

ileostomy

198

abdominal surgery using a laparoscope

laparoscopic surgery

199

incision into the abdomen

laparotomy

200

excision of the pancreas

pancreatectomy

201

excision of polyps

polypectomy

202

repair of the anus and rectum

proctoplasty

203

oral insertion of a tube into the stomach for examination and treatment, such as to remove blood clots from the stomach or to monitor bleeding

gastric lavage

204

insertion of a tube through the nose and into the stomach for various purposes, such as to obtain a gastric fluid specimen for analysis

nasogastric (NG) intubation

205

drug that neutralizes stomach acid

antacid

206

drug that prevents or stops vomiting

antiemetic

207

drug that decreases motility in the GI tract to arrest spasm or diarrhea

antispasmodic

208

drug that causes movement of the bowels

cathartic, laxative