Have all central urban areas seen decline?
No - some have seen expansion in retail, commerce and entertainment
What attracts businesses and people to inner city areas (aside from gov schemes)?
Businesses can be attracted by... - Agglomeration/proximity - Highly qualified labour pools People/customers can be attracted by... - Accessibility Both attracted by... - Gentrification
Spatial concentration of economic activities in cities
How can agglomeration attract businesses to inner city?
- Benefit from the collaboration of the highly skilled workforce (knowledge spillover)
- Benefit from shared facilities/tech
How can highly qualified labour pools attract businesses to inner city?
- Central areas attract graduates from city unis
- Graduates are skilled and seeking available employment nearby
- E.g. 36% workforce in Cambridge come from Cambridge Uni
How can accessibility attract customers to inner city areas?
- Inner city is closer and has better public transport links (particularly good for lower income people, who may not have car)
How can increased affluence cause inner city expansion?
- Higher incomes facilitate regeneration through gentrification
- Tourism becomes popular, forcing services to develop in city to provide
How can increased affluence cause decline in inner city areas?
- More likely to have cars, so drive to out of town shopping centres with cheaper parking
How can increased technology cause expansion in inner city areas?
- Increased tech increases the quaternary industry, which increases affluence (more gentrification + tourism)
How can increased technology cause decline in inner city areas?
- Internet shopping decreases footfall + popularity of ‘in person’ shopping
- Increased transport tech means more people have cars to drive out of town
How is the shift towards wanting leisure (over consumption) impacting the inner city?
Causing more entertainment and less retail in inner city
A process of regeneration carried out by individuals (not governmental schemes)
- one of the causes of retail, commerce and entertainment expansion in inner cities
Outline the process of gentrification
- Urban pioneers (tolerate inner city) move into most deprived areas
- Urban pioneers help to redevelop/‘fix up’ properties
- Property prices increase + locals are ‘priced out’
- Wealthy new demographic demand greater services, so businesses change to provide
- Newly available services make property prices rise even higher, forcing out remaining lower income earners
Who are urban pioneers?
- People who can tolerate inner city
- Often young people, wanting to save time + money
- Attracted to: proximity to jobs + services, cheap property
What are the effects of gentrification?
- Increased proportion of high income residents
- Decreased proportion of low income residents (often ethnic minorities + working class)
- Av household size decreases (new residents often young)
- Change in services + events to cater for wealthy (e.g. Races)
- Increase in rents/home prices
- Increase in offices/expensive entertainment
- Increase in tertiary + quaternary employment (young, wealthy, skilled)
Where has gentrification taken place?
Notting hill (Kensington, London)
- Was poor, working class
- Demographic mainly West Indian immigrants searching for better life
- Home to worst race riots in 1958
- Gentrified in late 1900s
- Evident through house prices: 1996 house = £31,000 - same house cost £299,999 in 2016 (area more desirable)
What has happened to most inner city areas since de-industrialisation?
Decline - including of High Street
Outline the Burgess Model
From centre moving outwards…
- Low class residential
- Middle class residential
- Upper class residential
Outline the core and Frame Model
From centre moving outwards…
- PLVI - highest quality shopping
- Core - manufacturing, dept and chain stores, functional zoning, low class residential, many pedestrians
- Frame - larger warehouse shops, offices, specialist services, cars, light manufacturing
What has de-industrialisation caused (in regards to the models)?
Doughnut syndrome - empty industrial centre
How has the High Street changed recently?
- Reduced footfall (PR - fallen by 10% in last 3yrs)
- More vacant shops (PR - 1/6 shops vacant)
- Decrease in independent shops, replaced by chains (end of 1900s, small shops fell bu 40%)
- ‘Clone town’ emergence
- Decrease in ‘traditional’ high street business (butchers)
Define ‘clone towns’
Towns that all have a similar land use - including: budget shops, charity shops, coffee shops, chain stores
What are the social causes of inner city/high street decline?
- Less convenience (out of town=under 1 roof, cheap parking)
- Change in culture (shopping now leisure, easier if all together)
- Internet shopping is quick and easy
What are the attractions of internet shopping?
- Now accessible (smartphones + fast internet)
- Now cheap delivery
- Easy access to global markets
What was the Portas Report (PR)?
- Highstreet review
- Found them to be declining
What are the economic causes of the decline of the inner city/High Street?
- 2008 recession (rent and business rates too expensive)
- Increasing parking costs in centre
- Increasing business rates/rents that independent shops cant afford
- Chain stores don’t reinvest in local area (De-multiplier)
What are the environmental causes of inner city/High Street decline?
- High Streets are structurally set - can’t become big shopping centres, etc, - ANACHRONISTIC ARCHITECTURE
- Once decline starts, area becomes unattractive + ugly, reducing further investment
What are the issues with declining central areas?
- Loss of community (clone towns)
- Chain retailers often use zero hr contracts (unstable job)
- Closure of independent stores
- Decline in market town’s local economies
- Loss of greenfield sites out of town
- Reduced environmental quality (broken windows theory)
What are the benefits of decline in central areas?
- Investment in people-friendly out of town shopping centres
- Chain retail in centre often offer seasonal jobs (good for young)