What are the 4 key issues in rural areas?
- Transport provision
- Service provision (including broadband)
How is the demographic an issue in rural areas?
- Loss of community (less people born + bred there)
- Ageing, dependent population (young move away for jobs)(mean age in 2001 was 42, in 2011, 45)
- Locals outpriced (second home ownership and counterurbanisation)
How is housing an issue in rural areas?
- Locals outpriced in popular areas (second home ownership and counterurbanisation)
- Rural idyll ruined by demand for new housing
How is transport provision and issue in rural areas?
- Mobility deprivation for those without cars (public transport reduced - unprofitable)
Define mobility deprivation
Deprivation of those without cars, who cannot move around to access services, e.g. healthcare
How is service provision an issue in rural areas?
- Services cut to save costs
- Increase in community run services (over 350 community-run shops in UK, growing by approx 22 each year)
- Digital divide (slow or no broadband)
Where is the digital divide between?
Urban (more digital access) and rural (less digital access)
What are the reasons for the digital divide?
- Urban areas are prioritised, as they have more customers
- Rural areas cannot always afford access, due to rural deprivation
- Rural areas often have older demographic, less technologically able
What process does the digital divide cause for those with less digital access?
What negative impacts does digital exclusion have?
- Unequal access to services (e.g. online banking and shopping)
- Miss work opportunities
- Social exclusion (don’t have primary form of communication - social media)
What affect does the digital divide have on the changing demographic?
Puts off youth, increasing the rate of the ageing population, and continuing out-migration in isolated rural communities
What rural areas suffer from out-migration?
- Isolated rural areas
- Haven’t been subject to rural rebranding schemes (so have rural deprivation issues)
Give an example of a rural areas suffering from out-migration
- 27,000 people living on 65 islands
- 50% population decrease over last 100yrs
- Out-migration triggered by lack of jobs, entertainment, infrastructure
- Population now elderly
How can the issue of out-migration in isolated rural areas be tackled?
- Implement rural rebranding schemes
- Train residents digitally (to remove digital divide/exclusion)
- Improve transport links (to prevent isolation that puts off counterurbanisation)
What rural areas have in-migration?
Well connected rural areas (digitally + physically)
What is another other word that means in-migration to rural areas?
The migration of people into rural areas beyond the rural urban fringe
Does counterurbanisation cause urban sprawl?
No - people move into the area beyond the urban fringe
What causes counterurbanisation?
- People chasing the rural idyll (green open spaces, good schools, low crime, sense of community)
- Rural area is well connected by transport infrastructure (commuting)
- Rural area is well connected by telecommunications (no digital exclusion, can work from home)
What demographic tend to be involved in counterurbanisation?
- Graduates with young families (attractive, can commute)
- Affluent, highly educated (can afford, 1/3 rural residents in high salary jobs)
- Sometimes E.European migrants (to fill labour shortage)
What are the impacts of counterurbanisation?
- Service change to fit desires of new demographic (some services saved, e.g. schools, some close, e.g. shops - have mobility)
- Increased house prices
- Increased second-home ownership
- Small, new housing estates built around edge of village, attract more wealthy people
- Incomers may bring employment ops
How can counterurbanisation be seen as a positive?
Increased population can help to slow deprivation
- Some services will be saved (e.g. schools)
- New population can afford to complete some gentrification/regeneration of their properties
How can counterurbanisation be seen as a negative?
New residents can create a divide between the two demographics
- Loss of community
- Loss of services the new demographic don’t want (e.g. small food shops)
- Second-home owners are only there temporarily (don’t fully support, so deprivation can continue)
How can the issues that come from counterurbanisation in rural areas be tackled?
Community Land Trusts (CLTs)
- Charities, focus on maintaining community housing + facilities
- E.g. Angmerging CLT (W.Sussex), under 30s cant afford local housing, plan to buy 8 houses to rent out to locals, plan to reestablish local facilities, e.g. shop
How can the issues that come with second-home ownership be tackled?
- Removing council tax subsidy of 10%
- Quotas on second home building
- Offering new properties to locals first