Block 4 (Economic Change And Social Inequalities In Deindustrialised Urban Places) Flashcards
What are the positive economic consequences of the loss of traditional industries in urban areas?
- Cheaper products (lower production costs when imported)
- Diversification of economy
- Replaced with higher paid tertiary + quaternary industry
- NEEs that gain industry have higher GDP + develop
What are the positive social consequences of the loss of traditional industries in urban areas?
- Push for higher education (to get skills for quaternary industry)
- Fewer dangerous jobs (e.g. mining/factory work)
What are the positive environmental consequences of the loss of traditional industries in urban areas?
- Lower emissions in HICs (1970-2013 industrial combustion emissions in UK fell by 94%)
What are the negative economic consequences of the loss of traditional industries in urban areas?
- Lower GDP in industrial areas
- Increased structural unemployment in industrial areas
- Decreased wages for those remaining in traditional industries (unions have less power)
What are the negative social consequences of the loss of traditional industries in urban areas?
- Unemployment in industrial areas
- Social exclusion (unemployed workers marginalised - less income, get stigma + can’t afford to participate socially)
- Loss of working communities
- Decentralisation of population (flight to suburbs by rich)
- Decrease in public services (flight by rich - less qualified teachers,etc)
- Health problems (lower life expectancy + mental health strain)
- Higher substance abuse and petty crime
What is he comparison of life expectancy for males in most deprived and least deprived areas?
- Most deprived = 74
- Least deprived = 83
What are the negative environmental consequences of the loss of traditional industries in urban areas?
- Infrastructure decline (accelerated by broken windows theory)
- Derelict buildings are polluting
- Increased emissions globally, as goods transported
- Increased emissions in NEEs, with less environmental laws
Define the broken windows theory
Visible signs of crime/antisocial behaviour may occur due to boredom etc, these signs encourage more crime/antisocial behaviour
Outline the cycle of deprivation
- Decline in manufacturing (de-industrialisation)
- Suburbanisation by wealthy, mobile residents
- Poorest residents left in inner city
- Environmental and property decline
- Lack of investment by local authorities
- Spiral of decline
- New industries and businesses reluctant to relocate there
Intra-urban migration from inner city to suburbs
What are 3 government policies used to reverse the negative impacts of deindustrialisation?
- Stimulating tertiary growth + investment by foreign MNCs
- Environmental policies
What is retraining?
Implementing policy to retrain workforce in an area that has suffered deindustrialisation
How does retraining help?
- Helps unskilled workers get back into employment
- This helps economy (tax + positive multiplier effect)
Give an example of retraining
MG Rover Plant closure, Longbridge - 2005 - 6000 jobs lost - Unemployment rose to 6.2% Bourneville college used to retrain - Unemployment fell to 3.7% (below city av)
What is foreign direct investment (FDI)?
Investment made by a company based in one country, to a company based in another country