Flashcards in Block V - Chemical, Biological and Radiological Warfare Deck (36)
What is the definition of Chemical Warfare?
Employment of chemical agents that is intended for use in military operations to seriously injure, kill or incapacitate personnel due to their physiological effects.
How many types of chemical agents are there?
Name the types of chemical agents.
Nerve, Blister, Blood, and Choking
Define Nerve Agents.
Liquid casualty agents that disrupt nerve impulses to the body while damaging body functions rather than tissue.
Give Examples of Nerve Agents.
Sarin (GB), Tabun (GA), Soman (GD), and VX.
Define Blood Agents.
Gaseous casualty agents that attack the enzymes carrying oxygen in the blood stream which may result in rapid breathing or choking.
Examples of Blood Agents are.
Hydrogen Cyanide (AC), Cyanogen Chloride (CK), and Arsine (SA).
Define a Blister Agent.
Liquid or solid casualty agents that can cause inflammation, blisters and general destruction of tissues, which can result in temporary blindness or death.
Examples of Blister Agents.
Distilled Mustard (HD), Lewiste (L), Phosgene Oxime (CX), and Leveinstein Mustard (HL).
Define Choking Agent.
Gaseous or liquid casualty agent with initial symptoms that include tears, dry throat, nausea, vomiting and headache. The lungs may become filled with fluid, making the victim feel as if they are drowning causing breathing to become rapid and shallow.
Examples of Choking Agents.
Phosgene (CG) and Diphosgene.
What detects the presence of liquid chemical agents by turning red or a reddish color?
M9 Chemical Agent Detector Paper
What is the Atropine/2-PAM-Chloride Auto Injector used for?
Used as a specific therapy for nerve agent casualties and issued for intramuscular injection, self0air or first aid.
Definition of Biological Warfare.
The use of agents to cause disease, sickness or death to reduce the effectiveness of opposing combatant forces.
Types of Pathogens that are used in Biological Agents.
Bacteria, Rickettsia, Viruses, Fungi, Protozoa, and Prions.
Describe how toxins are used in Biological Warfare.
Categorizations of toxins is based on the organisms (The Source) that produces them and the physiological effects the toxins have on humans.
Primary groups based on physiological effects from toxins.
Neurotoxins, Cytotoxins, Enterotoxins, and Dermatoxins.
Major Groupings by source from toxins.
Mycotoxins, Bacterial Toxins, Algal Toxins, Animal Venoms and Plant Toxins.
Primary way to limit the chemical and biological warfare impact on personnel?
Training and Awareness.
What are the 5 items of individual protective equipment (IPE) items used against chemical/biological warfare.
1. Protective Mask MCU-2P w/ Components (C2 Canister Filter)
2. Advanced Chemical Protective Garment (ACPG)
3. Chemical Protective Gloves and Liners
4. Chemical Protective Overboots and Laces
5. Skin Decontamination Kit
The employment of IPE is specified by what?
Define Radiological Warfare.
The deliberate use of radiological weapons to produce widespread injury or death of all life.
Different types of nuclear explosions.
1. High altitude Air Burst
2. Air Burst
3. Surface Burst
4. Shallow Underwater and Deep Underwater
At what altitude does high altitude air burst occur at?
100,000 Ft and above
Which type of nuclear explosion has the worst fallout and why?
Surface Burst. Fireball touches the surface of the earth which results in massive amounts of radioactive fallout.
Which type of nuclear explosion causes the most water contamination?
Deep Underwater Burst
What are ready shelter stations?
Stations located just inside the weather envelope of a ship, with access to deep shelter. It provides minimum shielding from nuclear radiation and allows the personnel to remain close to battle stations.
What are deep shelter stations?
Stations located low in the ship and near the centerline. They provide maximum shielding from nuclear radiation but personnel are often too far away from battle stations.
What does MOPP stand for?
Mission Orientated Protective Posture