Flashcards in Block II - First Aid Deck (27)
What are the three objectives of First Aid?
Prevent further injury, infection, and the loss of life.
What are the four methods of controlling bleeding?
Direct Pressure, Elevation, Pressure Points, and the use of Tourniquet as a last resort.
What is a pressure point?
Point on the body where a main artery lies near the skin surface and over a bone. You can reduce and stop blood flow to areas of the body by applying physical pressure to this point with the fingers or with the heel of the hand.
How many pressure points are there on the body?
11 Principal pressure points on each side of the body. (22 total)
Name the pressure points and their locations on the body.
Superficial Temporal Artery (Temple)
Common Carotid Artery (Neck)
Brachial Artery (Inner Upper Arm)
Radial/Ulnar Artery (Wrist)
Illiac Artery (Groin)
Anterior/Posterior Tibial Artery (Ankle)
Facial Artery (Jaw)
Subclavian Artery (Collar Bone)
Brachial Artery (Inner Elbow)
Femoral Artery (Upper Thigh)
Popliteal Artery (Knee)
How many classifications of Burns are there? What are they?
Three. First, Second, and Third Degree.
Classification of a First Degree Burn.
Produces redness and mild pain.
Classification of a Second Degree Burn.
Causes red blistered skin and severe pain.
Classification of a Third Degree Burn.
Destroys tissue, skin and bone in severe cases. However, severe pain may be absent due to nerve endings being destroyed.
What are the two types of fractures?
Closed/Simple & Open/Compound
Describe a closed/simple fracture.
Broken bone without a break in the skin.
Describe a open/compound fracture.
Break in the skin with possible bone protrusion.
Explain Electric Shock.
When a person comes into contact with an electric energy source shock occurs. The wide variety of injuries that can result from an electrical shock range from little or no evidence of injury to severe trauma with associated cardiac arrest.
What are the indications of an obstructed airway?
Inability to talk, grasping and pointing to the throat, exaggerated breathing efforts, and the skin turning a bluish color.
What are the two types of heat related injuries that can occur?
Heat Exhaustion and Heat Stroke.
Describe Heat Exhaustion.
Serious disturbance of blood flow to the brain, heart and lungs. The skin is cool, moist, and clammy and pupils are dilated. Body temperature may be normal or high. Victim is usually sweating profusely.
Describe Heat Stroke.
Serious condition caused by breakdown of the sweating mechanism of the body. Victim is unable to eliminate excessive body heat build up. Symptoms may include hot and/or dry skin, uneven pupil dilation, and a weak rapid pulse.
What are the three types of cold weather injuries?
Hypothermia, Superficial Frostbite, and Deep Frostbite.
General cooling of the whole body caused by exposure to low or rapidly falling temperature, cold moisture, snow or ice. Victim may appear pale and unconscious, and may even be taken for dead. Breathing is slow and shallow, pulse faint or even undetectable. The body tissues feel semi-ridged, and the arms and legs may feel stiff.
Describe Superficial Frostbite.
When ice crystals are forming in the upper skin layers after exposure to a temperature of 32 degrees or lower
Describe Deep Frostbite.
Develops when ice crystals are forming in the deeper tissues after exposure to a temperature of 32 degrees or lower.
What is shock?
Life-threatening medical condition whereby the body suffers from insufficient blood flow throughout the body as a result of severe injury or illness.
Describe Septic Shock.
Results from bacteria multiplying in the blood and releasing toxins. Common causes of this are pneumonia, intra-abdominal infections (such as ruptured appendix) and meningitis.
Describe Anaphylactic Shock.
A type of severe hypersensitivity or allergic reaction. Causes include allergy to insect stings, medicines or foods (nuts, berries, seafood) etc.
Describe Cardiogenic Shock.
Occurs when the heart is damaged and unable to supply sufficient blood to the body. This can be the end result of a heart attack or congestive heart failure.
Describe Hypovolemic Shock.
Caused by severe blood and fluid loss, such as from traumatic bodily injury, which makes the heart unable to pump enough blood to the body.