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Anatomy and Physiology > Blood > Flashcards

Flashcards in Blood Deck (77):
1

What are the 3 main functions of blood?

1. Major transportation of fluids 2. Hemostasis 3. Body Defense

2

What 6 things does the blood transport?

1. Nutrients 2. Gases 3. Wastes 4. Hormones 5. Heat 6. Plasma proteins

3

What is hemostasis?

The stopping of the flow of blood.

4

What are the three solid components of blood?

1. RBCs 2. WBCs 3. Platelets

5

What is another name for red blood cells?

Erythrocytes

6

What is another name for white blood cells?

Leukocytes

7

What is another name for platelets

Thrombocytes

8

What is the liquid component of blood?

Plasma

9

What is the average blood volume for an adult?

5-6 Liters approximately 70mL/kg. Does vary with age, weight, and sex.

10

Plasma is what percentage water?

90%

11

What does anucleate mean?

Lacks a nucleus.

12

What is the advantage of having biconcave disks?

More surface area, more flexible.

13

What is the main function of Erythrocytes (RBCs)?

Transport oxygen on hemoglobin molecules.

14

What does erythropoiesis mean?

Formation of red blood cells

15

Where does erythropoiesis occur?

In red bone marrow.

16

What hormone signals erythropoiesis?

Erythropoietin

17

Where is erythropoietin primarily made?

Kidneys

18

What is the life expectancy of RBCs?

120 days

19

What is a reticulocyte?

Immature RBC, the last stage before maturity

20

What is the average RBC count?

4-6 Million rbcs/mm^3

21

What is hematocirt?

The ratio of the volume of red blood cells to the total volume of blood.

22

What is hemoglobin?

a red protein responsible for transporting oxygen in the blood

23

What is the average hematocrit percentage?

38-50%

24

What is anemia?

A decrease in oxygen carrying capacity of blood.

25

What is polycythemia

Abnormal increase in RBCS.

26

What is the function of leukocytes?

Body defense

27

What are the three types of granulocytes?

BEN 1. Basophils 2. Eosinophils 3. Neutrophils

28

What are the two types of Agranulocytes?

1. Monocytes 2. Lymphocytes

29

What is difference between granulocytes and agranulocytes?

Granulocytes have visible granule on blood smear and agranulocytes do not.

30

What is diapedesis?

The passage of blood cells through the intact walls of the capillaries, typically accompanying inflammation.

31

What is the average WBC?

5k-10k per mL

32

What is the differential WBC count?

Percent breakdown of wbc.

33

What is leukocytosis?

Abnormally high WBC.

34

What is leukopenia?

Abnormally low WBC.

35

What is the predominant granulocyte on DIFF?

Neutrophil

36

What is the function of neutrophils?

Phagocytosis (cell breakdown)

37

Which granulocyte has a segmented nucleus?

Neutrophil

38

What are two other names for neutrophil?

Segs and polymorphonuclear

39

What is a band cell?

Immature neutrophil

40

What does neutrophilia mean?

High neutrophil count.

41

What does neutropenia mean?

Low neutrophil count.

42

What does penia mean?

low

43

Eosinophil makes up what percentage of DIFF?

1-3%

44

What color are neutrophil granules?

Pale

45

What color are eosinophil granules?

red/orange

46

What is the function of eosinophil?

Mediate allergic and parasite reactions.

47

What is the least abundant WBC on DIFF? (Less than 1%)

Basophil

48

What color are basophil granules?

Dark purple

49

What are the two functions of basophil?

1. Releases histamine and heparin. 2. Promotes inflammatory response and increases blood flow to damaged tissue.

50

What is the second most abundant leukocyte on DIFF?

Lymphocyte

51

Which leukocyte has a large round nucleus?

Lymphocyte

52

What is the function of a lymphocyte?

Immunity

53

What leukocyte is responsible for T-cells and B-cells?

Lymphocytes

54

Where are T-cells produced?

Thymus

55

Where are B-cells produced?

Red bone marrow

56

What is the middle step in conversion from B-cells to antibodies?

Conversion to plasma cells

57

What is the largest WBC?

Monocyte

58

What are the two functions of monocytes?

1. Phagocytosis 2. Becomes macrophage in tissues

59

What is a macrophage?

A large phagocytic cell found in stationary form in the tissues or as a mobile white blood cell, esp. at sites of infection.

60

What are platelets?

Cytoplasmic fragments of primitive bone marrow cells called megakaryocytes.

61

Average number of platelets per mm^3

250 thousand

62

What is the function of platelets?

Blood clotting

63

What's another name for platelets?

Thrombocytes

64

What is thrombus?

Abnormal blood clot inside a vessel.

65

Where is more common to see a thrombus in a being or artery?

Vein because blood flow is more sluggish.

66

What does DVT stand for?

Deep Vein Thrombosis

67

What is an embolus?

A moving blood clot

68

What is an antigen?

A Foreign invader

69

What does blood type refer to?

Which antigens are found on RBC membrane.

70

What will spontaneously develop to antigens not present?

Antibodies

71

What is a major transfusion risk?

Donor's RBCs are clumped by the recipients antibodies.

72

What blood type is the universal donor?

Type O

73

What blood type is the universal recipient?

Type AB

74

What is blood type AB the universal recipient?

Because it doesn't have antibodies

75

RH factor is important during what?

Pregnancy

76

What is possible if mother is RH- and baby is RH+

Erythroblastosis fetalis

77

What prevents Erythroblastosis fetalis?

Rhogam