Reproductive Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Reproductive > Flashcards

Flashcards in Reproductive Deck (89):
1

What is Meiosis

Male: spermatogenesis; Female oogenesis

2

What are gametes?

Sex cells from 2 successive nuclear divisions.

3

What is the function of reproductive system?

Propagation of the species

4

3 Functions of male reproductive system

1. Produce/maintain gametes.
2. Produce sex hormones.
3. Transport sperm to female reproductive tract

5

What are the primary male sex organs?

Gonades = Testes

6

What is the endocrine function of the gonads (testes)?

Testosterone production.

7

What is the exocrine function of the gonads (testes)?

Sperm formation.

8

What are the external secondary male sex organs?

1. Scrotum
2. Penis

9

What are the internal secondary male sex organs? (7)

Epididymis, vas (ductus) deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts, bulbourethral glands, proste gland, urethra

10

Where are the testes located?

Scrotum

11

What is the progression of the testes by birth?

Through the inguinal canal, guided by the gubernaculum.

12

What does cryptorchidism mean?

Hidden testes

13

What are 3 other names for Sertoli cells?

1. Supporting
2. Sustentacular
3 Nurse

14

What is the function of sertoli cells?

1. Support, nourish developing spermatogenic cells
2. Mediate effects of FSH/Testosterone cells on spermatogenesis
3. From "blood-testis barrier"

15

Name the 3 parts of a mature sperm cell

1. Tail
2. Midpiece
3. Head

16

What is the tail of a sperm cell called

Flagellum

17

Where is mitochondria found in a sperm cell

Midpiece

18

What two parts make up the head of a sperm cell.

1. Nucleus
2. Acrosome

19

What is the function of the acrosome?

Help the sperm penetrate the egg.

20

Where is the epididymis?

Posterior surface of the testes, connected to efferent ductules and leads to vas deferens

21

What is the function of the epididymis?

Major site of sperm storage during maturation and transport of sperm to vas defs.

22

What is the vas deferens?

Part of spermatic cord along with blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves.

23

What is the ampulla?

Joins duct of seminal vesicle to ejaculatory duct.

24

What is the function of the vas deferens?

Transport sperm to ejaculatory duct.

25

Where are seminal vesicles located?

Posterior bladder

26

What are the functions of the seminal vesicles?

1. Secrete nutrients for sperm (fructose)
2. Secrete prostaglandis

27

What is special about the prostaglandis secreted by the seminal vesicles?

They are somewhat alkaline and pass into ejaculatory duct at time of emission.

28

What are the ejaculatory ducts?

Union of ducts of seminal vesicles and vas deferentia.

29

What is the function of ejaculatory ducts?

Eject sperm, seminal vesicle fluid into prostatic urethra.

30

What is another name for the bulbourethral glands?

Cowper's glands?

31

Where are the bulbourethral glands located?

Sit below the prostate

32

What are the functions of bulbourethral glands?

Secrete alkaline, mucousy fluid to lubricate penis and lining of urethra

33

Where is the prostate gland located?

Sits below the bladder.

34

What are the functions of the prostate gland?

1. secretes alkaline fluid
2. Enhances sperm motility

35

Name two prostate disorders.

1. BPH: Benign prostatic hypertrophy/hyperplasia
2. Prostate cancer

36

Where is the urethra located?

Within corpus spongiosum of penis.

37

What is the function of the urethra?

Passageway for semen and urine

38

How many sperm per ejaculation?

About 120 million

39

How long does sperm survive after ejaculation?

24-48

40

What is cappacitation?

Ability to fertilize egg, happens when entering female acrosome weakens

41

What is some causes of infertility in men?

1. Poor motility
2. Morphological defects

42

What is the dartos muscle?

Smooth muscle that moves scrotum to regulate temperature.

43

What is the function of the scrotum?

Protection of the testes.

44

What are the 3 columns of erectly tissue in the penis?

Corpus spongiosum (urethra) and 2 sets of corpora cavernosa

45

Another name for prepuce

Foreskin

46

What is the function of the penis?

1. Conveys urine/semen to outside
2. Passes semen into vagina during intercourse

47

Erection stimulates which nervous system

Parasympathetic

48

Which nervous system is associated with ejaculation?

Sympathetic

49

What are the functions of the female reproductive system.

1.Produce gametes (eggs or ova)
2. Transport eggs for fertilization
3. Receive penis during intercourse
4. Maintain embryo/fetus
5. Childbirth
6. Sex hormone production
7. Lactation

50

What are the primary female sex organs?

1. Gonads = ovaries

51

When do the gonads (ovaries) descend during gestation?

Third month

52

What ligaments hold the gonads (ovaries) in place?

1. Broad
2. Ovarian
3. Suspensory

53

What are the two main structures of the ovaries?

1. Cortex
2. Medulla

54

What is the endocrine function of the gonads (ovaries)?

Synthesize/secrete estrogen

55

What is the exocrine function of the gonads (ovaries)?

Oogenesis

56

What are the internal secondary female sex organs? (3)

1. Fallopian tubes
2. Uterus
3. Vagina

57

What are the external secondary female sex organs?

Vulva, mons pubis, labia minora/majora, clitoris, Bartholin's glands, mammary glands

58

What is the function of the Fallopian (uterine) tubes?

1. Site of fertilization
2. Transports ovum/fertilized egg to uterus

59

What does the female infundibulum have to help capture eggs?

Fimbria

60

What is the uterus?

3-layered muscular organ anchored by broad and round ligaments.

61

What are the three linings of the uterus?

1. Endometrium (innermost layer)
2. Myometrium (made of smooth muscle)
3. Perimetrium (outermost layer)

62

What does metro mean?

Uterus

63

What is endometriosis?

Endometrial tissue in the wrong place

64

Why is endometriosis bad?

It can cause scaring and cause fertility issues.

65

What are the three regions of the uterus?

1. Fundus
2. Body
3. Cervix

66

Where is the neck of the uterus and the site of a pap smear?

Cervix

67

What are the function of the uterus?

1. Maintain developing baby
2. Expel baby
3. Shed endometrial lining during mesntruation

68

What is the function of the vagina?

1. Receive penis during intercourse
2. Birth canal
Allow for passage of uterine secretions during menstruation

69

What is the hymen?

Thing membrane covering vaginal orifice

70

What are the eternal female reproductive organs? (4)

1. Vulva
2. Mons pubis
3. Labia majora
4. Labia minora

71

Is the labia major or minora considered the vestibule?

Labia minora

72

What is the clitoris?

Female penis that has erectile tissue

73

What do Bartholin's (vestibular) glands do?

Secrete mucus for lubrication

74

What is the perineum?

Area from urethral opening to anus

75

What is an episiotomy?

When you cut the perineum to prevent tearing.

76

What nerve is numbed for an episiotomy

Pudendal nerve

77

What happens during a female erection/orgasm? (3)

1. Dilation of arteries
2. Erectile tissue swells
3. Muscular contractions within uterus/oviducts helps transport sperm

78

What are the 4 parts of the mammary glands?

1. Alveolar glands (milk producing)
2. Alveolar ducts
3. Lactiferous ducts
4. Areola

79

Which hormone promotes lactation?

Prolactin secreted by anterior pituitary

80

What is a woman's first milk called?

colostrum

81

What are the two functions of oxytocin as it pertains to the reproductive system?

1. Stimulate milk ejection ("let-down")
2. Stimulates uterine contraction to lessen uterine bleeding

82

What percentage of women have reached menopause by 52?

85%

83

What does a lack of mense for one year indicate?

Menopause

84

What happens during menopause? (3)

1. Ovaries unresponsive to gonadotropins
2. Increase in FSH, LH
3. Decrease in estrogen

85

What hormone causes a woman to ovulate?

LH

86

What hormone causes eggs/follicles to develop in ovary?

FSH

87

What part of the menstrual cycle varies the most?

Follicular (proliferative phase)

88

When does menstruation start?

14 days before the start of the next period

89

How long does it take corpus luteum to degenerate if egg isn't fertilized?

10 days