Flashcards in Reproductive Deck (89):
What is Meiosis
Male: spermatogenesis; Female oogenesis
What are gametes?
Sex cells from 2 successive nuclear divisions.
What is the function of reproductive system?
Propagation of the species
3 Functions of male reproductive system
1. Produce/maintain gametes.
2. Produce sex hormones.
3. Transport sperm to female reproductive tract
What are the primary male sex organs?
Gonades = Testes
What is the endocrine function of the gonads (testes)?
What is the exocrine function of the gonads (testes)?
What are the external secondary male sex organs?
What are the internal secondary male sex organs? (7)
Epididymis, vas (ductus) deferens, seminal vesicles, ejaculatory ducts, bulbourethral glands, proste gland, urethra
Where are the testes located?
What is the progression of the testes by birth?
Through the inguinal canal, guided by the gubernaculum.
What does cryptorchidism mean?
What are 3 other names for Sertoli cells?
What is the function of sertoli cells?
1. Support, nourish developing spermatogenic cells
2. Mediate effects of FSH/Testosterone cells on spermatogenesis
3. From "blood-testis barrier"
Name the 3 parts of a mature sperm cell
What is the tail of a sperm cell called
Where is mitochondria found in a sperm cell
What two parts make up the head of a sperm cell.
What is the function of the acrosome?
Help the sperm penetrate the egg.
Where is the epididymis?
Posterior surface of the testes, connected to efferent ductules and leads to vas deferens
What is the function of the epididymis?
Major site of sperm storage during maturation and transport of sperm to vas defs.
What is the vas deferens?
Part of spermatic cord along with blood vessels, lymphatics, nerves.
What is the ampulla?
Joins duct of seminal vesicle to ejaculatory duct.
What is the function of the vas deferens?
Transport sperm to ejaculatory duct.
Where are seminal vesicles located?
What are the functions of the seminal vesicles?
1. Secrete nutrients for sperm (fructose)
2. Secrete prostaglandis
What is special about the prostaglandis secreted by the seminal vesicles?
They are somewhat alkaline and pass into ejaculatory duct at time of emission.
What are the ejaculatory ducts?
Union of ducts of seminal vesicles and vas deferentia.
What is the function of ejaculatory ducts?
Eject sperm, seminal vesicle fluid into prostatic urethra.
What is another name for the bulbourethral glands?
Where are the bulbourethral glands located?
Sit below the prostate
What are the functions of bulbourethral glands?
Secrete alkaline, mucousy fluid to lubricate penis and lining of urethra
Where is the prostate gland located?
Sits below the bladder.
What are the functions of the prostate gland?
1. secretes alkaline fluid
2. Enhances sperm motility
Name two prostate disorders.
1. BPH: Benign prostatic hypertrophy/hyperplasia
2. Prostate cancer
Where is the urethra located?
Within corpus spongiosum of penis.
What is the function of the urethra?
Passageway for semen and urine
How many sperm per ejaculation?
About 120 million
How long does sperm survive after ejaculation?
What is cappacitation?
Ability to fertilize egg, happens when entering female acrosome weakens
What is some causes of infertility in men?
1. Poor motility
2. Morphological defects
What is the dartos muscle?
Smooth muscle that moves scrotum to regulate temperature.
What is the function of the scrotum?
Protection of the testes.
What are the 3 columns of erectly tissue in the penis?
Corpus spongiosum (urethra) and 2 sets of corpora cavernosa
Another name for prepuce
What is the function of the penis?
1. Conveys urine/semen to outside
2. Passes semen into vagina during intercourse
Erection stimulates which nervous system
Which nervous system is associated with ejaculation?
What are the functions of the female reproductive system.
1.Produce gametes (eggs or ova)
2. Transport eggs for fertilization
3. Receive penis during intercourse
4. Maintain embryo/fetus
6. Sex hormone production
What are the primary female sex organs?
1. Gonads = ovaries
When do the gonads (ovaries) descend during gestation?
What ligaments hold the gonads (ovaries) in place?
What are the two main structures of the ovaries?
What is the endocrine function of the gonads (ovaries)?
What is the exocrine function of the gonads (ovaries)?
What are the internal secondary female sex organs? (3)
1. Fallopian tubes
What are the external secondary female sex organs?
Vulva, mons pubis, labia minora/majora, clitoris, Bartholin's glands, mammary glands
What is the function of the Fallopian (uterine) tubes?
1. Site of fertilization
2. Transports ovum/fertilized egg to uterus
What does the female infundibulum have to help capture eggs?
What is the uterus?
3-layered muscular organ anchored by broad and round ligaments.
What are the three linings of the uterus?
1. Endometrium (innermost layer)
2. Myometrium (made of smooth muscle)
3. Perimetrium (outermost layer)
What does metro mean?
What is endometriosis?
Endometrial tissue in the wrong place
Why is endometriosis bad?
It can cause scaring and cause fertility issues.
What are the three regions of the uterus?
Where is the neck of the uterus and the site of a pap smear?
What are the function of the uterus?
1. Maintain developing baby
2. Expel baby
3. Shed endometrial lining during mesntruation
What is the function of the vagina?
1. Receive penis during intercourse
2. Birth canal
Allow for passage of uterine secretions during menstruation
What is the hymen?
Thing membrane covering vaginal orifice
What are the eternal female reproductive organs? (4)
2. Mons pubis
3. Labia majora
4. Labia minora
Is the labia major or minora considered the vestibule?
What is the clitoris?
Female penis that has erectile tissue
What do Bartholin's (vestibular) glands do?
Secrete mucus for lubrication
What is the perineum?
Area from urethral opening to anus
What is an episiotomy?
When you cut the perineum to prevent tearing.
What nerve is numbed for an episiotomy
What happens during a female erection/orgasm? (3)
1. Dilation of arteries
2. Erectile tissue swells
3. Muscular contractions within uterus/oviducts helps transport sperm
What are the 4 parts of the mammary glands?
1. Alveolar glands (milk producing)
2. Alveolar ducts
3. Lactiferous ducts
Which hormone promotes lactation?
Prolactin secreted by anterior pituitary
What is a woman's first milk called?
What are the two functions of oxytocin as it pertains to the reproductive system?
1. Stimulate milk ejection ("let-down")
2. Stimulates uterine contraction to lessen uterine bleeding
What percentage of women have reached menopause by 52?
What does a lack of mense for one year indicate?
What happens during menopause? (3)
1. Ovaries unresponsive to gonadotropins
2. Increase in FSH, LH
3. Decrease in estrogen
What hormone causes a woman to ovulate?
What hormone causes eggs/follicles to develop in ovary?
What part of the menstrual cycle varies the most?
Follicular (proliferative phase)
When does menstruation start?
14 days before the start of the next period