Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (73):
What is normal blood PH?
What do kidneys secrete
What are the functions of the kidneys? (EFBRBA)
1. Excretion of nitrogenous waste 2. Fluid/electrolyte balance 3. Blood pH regulation 3. RBC production 4. Blood pressure regulation 5 Activation of Vitamin D
What are the organs of the urinary system? (KUUU)
1. Kidneys 2. Ureter 3. Urinary bladder 4. Urethra
What does retroperitoneal mean?
Behind the peritoneum.
Where are kidneys located?
Retroperitoneal organ located between T12-L3.
What are the three parts of the kidney? (CSP)
1. Renal capsule 2. Renal Sinus 3. Renal parenchyma
What are the functions for the renal capsule? (PS)
1. Protection 2. Shape
What is the renal capsule?
Fibrous outer membrane
What is the renal sinus?
Hollow chamber within each kidney
What is the function of the renal sinus?
Houses renal pelvis
What are the two parts of the renal pelvis
Major and minor calyces
Where does the ureter come out of?
What is the hilum?
an indentation in the surface of a kidney, spleen, or other organ, where blood vessels, ducts, nerve fibers, etc., enter or leave it.
What makes up the renal parenchyma?
Renal cortes and Renal Medulla
Where are renal columns?
In renal cortex
Where are renal pyramids?
What is the renal papillae?
The tip of a renal pyramid
What are renal columns?
Renal columns are bands of granular tissue separating adjacent renal pyramids. The renal columns contain vessels and urinary tubes that run to the cortex.
What are renal pyramids?
Renal pyramids are cone-like formations consisting of multiple ducts which filter and purify the blood. They also manufacture and transport urine and waste products.
What are renal papillae?
Renal papilla Renal papilla are openings in the renal calyces through which the urine arrives from the collecting tubules.
What is the renal cortex?
The cortex is the outer layer of the kidney composed of dense tissue. It lies just below the renal capsule. It contains small points known as Malpighi’s corpuscles (structures that constitute the fundamental part of the nephrons, where the blood is filtered).
What is a nephron?
Structural and functional unit of the kidney
How many nephrons are in a kidney?
About 1 million
What are the two main parts of a nephron?
1. renal corpuscle 2. Renal tubule
Where is the site of filtration?
What are the two main parts of the renal corpuscle? (GB)
1. Glomerulus 2. Bowman's capsule
Bowman's capsule is made up of what tissue?
2 layers of squamous epithelial cells, visceral and parietal
What are the three parts of the renal tubule? (PLD)
1. Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) 2. Loop of Henle 3. Distal convoluted tubule
What's another name for the loop of Henle?
What are the two parts of the Loop of Henle (DA)
1. Descending limb 2. Ascending limb
Descending convoluted tubule merges to form what?
Collecting ducts merge to form what?
Renal papilla hole
Renal papilla hole turns into what?
What is the first step in urine formation?
what two parts of urine formation can happen simultaneously?
Reabsorption and secretion
What type of transport happens when substances from blood in glomerulus pass into bowman's capsule?
What is filtrate?
Everything in blood except: platelets, WBC/RBC, and plasma proteins.
Describe reabsorption in the kidneys
Movement of substances from filtrate in renal tubule to blood of peritubular capillary.
Where does most reabsorption occur?
Proximal convoluted tubule
What type of transport is involved in reabsorption?
Passive and active
What lines the proximal convoluted tubule and why?
Microvilli to create a greater surface area
Describe secretion in the kidneys
Movement of substances from blood of peritubular capillary to filtrate of renal tubule.
What types of transport does secretion involve?
Passive and active
Describe the process of urine elimination
Nephrons empty into collecting ducts which empty into openings in renal papillae to the major/minor calyces which empty into ureter then urinary bladder and finally urethra
How many liters of urine is excreted every 24 hours?
What is in nitrogenous metabolic waste? (U, C, UA)
1. Urea 2. Creatinine 3. Uric Acid
What is in urine? (W NMW E T P H AA)
1. Water, 2, nitrogenous metabolic waste 3. electrolytes 4. toxins 5. pigments 6 hormones 7. amino acids
Where do the ureters enter the bladder?
On the posterior side
What is the function of the ureters?
Transport urine from kidney to bladder
What is the urinary bladder?
4 layered distensible organ
What are the 4 layers of the urinary bladder? ( M S M S)
1. Mucous coat 2. Submucous 3. Muscular coat 4. Serous coat
Which layer of the urinary bladder is made with smooth muscle?
What is the trigone?
a triangular region or tissue, particularly the area at the base of the urinary bladder, between the openings of the ureters and urethra.
What is the function of the urinary bladder?
Reservoir for urine and expels urine
What is the function of the urethra?
Passage way for urine from bladder to outside the body.
Where does the urethra open?
External urethral orifice
How long is the female urethra?
How long is the male urethra?
What is another name for urination?
What sphincter muscles are involved in urination?
1. Internal urethral sphincter 2. External urethral sphincter
Where is the internal urethral sphincter located?
Junction of bladder and urethra
Which urethral sphincter is involuntary?
Which urethral sphincter is voluntary?
Which urethral sphincter is made of smooth muscle?
Which urethral sphincter is skeletal muscle?
Where is the external urethral sphincter located?
2 cm distal to bladder within urethra
What are the three parts to the male urethra?
1. Proximal (prostatic) 2. Membranous (middle) 3. Penile (distal)
Where is the micturition reflex located?
Sacral spinal cord segments
What part of the brain is used for voluntary decision to urinate?
What is cystitis?
Inflammation of the bladder
Who is more likely to get cystitis and why?
Females: Shorter urethra and closer to anus