Urinary System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Urinary System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Urinary System Deck (73):
1

What is normal blood PH?

7.35-7.4

2

What do kidneys secrete

Erythropoesen

3

What are the functions of the kidneys? (EFBRBA)

1. Excretion of nitrogenous waste 2. Fluid/electrolyte balance 3. Blood pH regulation 3. RBC production 4. Blood pressure regulation 5 Activation of Vitamin D

4

What are the organs of the urinary system? (KUUU)

1. Kidneys 2. Ureter 3. Urinary bladder 4. Urethra

5

What does retroperitoneal mean?

Behind the peritoneum.

6

Where are kidneys located?

Retroperitoneal organ located between T12-L3.

7

What are the three parts of the kidney? (CSP)

1. Renal capsule 2. Renal Sinus 3. Renal parenchyma

8

What are the functions for the renal capsule? (PS)

1. Protection 2. Shape

9

What is the renal capsule?

Fibrous outer membrane

10

What is the renal sinus?

Hollow chamber within each kidney

11

What is the function of the renal sinus?

Houses renal pelvis

12

What are the two parts of the renal pelvis

Major and minor calyces

13

Where does the ureter come out of?

Hilum

14

What is the hilum?

an indentation in the surface of a kidney, spleen, or other organ, where blood vessels, ducts, nerve fibers, etc., enter or leave it.

15

What makes up the renal parenchyma?

Renal cortes and Renal Medulla

16

Where are renal columns?

In renal cortex

17

Where are renal pyramids?

Renal medulla

18

What is the renal papillae?

The tip of a renal pyramid

19

What are renal columns?

Renal columns are bands of granular tissue separating adjacent renal pyramids. The renal columns contain vessels and urinary tubes that run to the cortex.

20

What are renal pyramids?

Renal pyramids are cone-like formations consisting of multiple ducts which filter and purify the blood. They also manufacture and transport urine and waste products.

21

What are renal papillae?

Renal papilla Renal papilla are openings in the renal calyces through which the urine arrives from the collecting tubules.

22

What is the renal cortex?

The cortex is the outer layer of the kidney composed of dense tissue. It lies just below the renal capsule. It contains small points known as Malpighi’s corpuscles (structures that constitute the fundamental part of the nephrons, where the blood is filtered).

23

What is a nephron?

Structural and functional unit of the kidney

24

How many nephrons are in a kidney?

About 1 million

25

What are the two main parts of a nephron?

1. renal corpuscle 2. Renal tubule

26

Where is the site of filtration?

Nephrons

27

What are the two main parts of the renal corpuscle? (GB)

1. Glomerulus 2. Bowman's capsule

28

Bowman's capsule is made up of what tissue?

2 layers of squamous epithelial cells, visceral and parietal

29

What are the three parts of the renal tubule? (PLD)

1. Proximal convoluted tubule (PCT) 2. Loop of Henle 3. Distal convoluted tubule

30

What's another name for the loop of Henle?

Nephron loop

31

What are the two parts of the Loop of Henle (DA)

1. Descending limb 2. Ascending limb

32

Descending convoluted tubule merges to form what?

Collecting ducts

33

Collecting ducts merge to form what?

Renal papilla hole

34

Renal papilla hole turns into what?

Minor calyx

35

What is the first step in urine formation?

Filtration

36

what two parts of urine formation can happen simultaneously?

Reabsorption and secretion

37

What type of transport happens when substances from blood in glomerulus pass into bowman's capsule?

Passive transport

38

What is filtrate?

Everything in blood except: platelets, WBC/RBC, and plasma proteins.

39

Describe reabsorption in the kidneys

Movement of substances from filtrate in renal tubule to blood of peritubular capillary.

40

Where does most reabsorption occur?

Proximal convoluted tubule

41

What type of transport is involved in reabsorption?

Passive and active

42

What lines the proximal convoluted tubule and why?

Microvilli to create a greater surface area

43

Describe secretion in the kidneys

Movement of substances from blood of peritubular capillary to filtrate of renal tubule.

44

What types of transport does secretion involve?

Passive and active

45

Describe the process of urine elimination

Nephrons empty into collecting ducts which empty into openings in renal papillae to the major/minor calyces which empty into ureter then urinary bladder and finally urethra

46

How many liters of urine is excreted every 24 hours?

1.5 L

47

What is in nitrogenous metabolic waste? (U, C, UA)

1. Urea 2. Creatinine 3. Uric Acid

48

What is in urine? (W NMW E T P H AA)

1. Water, 2, nitrogenous metabolic waste 3. electrolytes 4. toxins 5. pigments 6 hormones 7. amino acids

49

Where do the ureters enter the bladder?

On the posterior side

50

What is the function of the ureters?

Transport urine from kidney to bladder

51

What is the urinary bladder?

4 layered distensible organ

52

What are the 4 layers of the urinary bladder? ( M S M S)

1. Mucous coat 2. Submucous 3. Muscular coat 4. Serous coat

53

Which layer of the urinary bladder is made with smooth muscle?

Detrusor muscle

54

What is the trigone?

a triangular region or tissue, particularly the area at the base of the urinary bladder, between the openings of the ureters and urethra.

55

What is the function of the urinary bladder?

Reservoir for urine and expels urine

56

What is the function of the urethra?

Passage way for urine from bladder to outside the body.

57

Where does the urethra open?

External urethral orifice

58

How long is the female urethra?

1-1.5 inches

59

How long is the male urethra?

8 inches

60

What is another name for urination?

micturition

61

What sphincter muscles are involved in urination?

1. Internal urethral sphincter 2. External urethral sphincter

62

Where is the internal urethral sphincter located?

Junction of bladder and urethra

63

Which urethral sphincter is involuntary?

Internal

64

Which urethral sphincter is voluntary?

External

65

Which urethral sphincter is made of smooth muscle?

Internal

66

Which urethral sphincter is skeletal muscle?

External

67

Where is the external urethral sphincter located?

2 cm distal to bladder within urethra

68

What are the three parts to the male urethra?

1. Proximal (prostatic) 2. Membranous (middle) 3. Penile (distal)

69

Where is the micturition reflex located?

Sacral spinal cord segments

70

What part of the brain is used for voluntary decision to urinate?

Cerebral cortex

71

What is cystitis?

Inflammation of the bladder

72

Who is more likely to get cystitis and why?

Females: Shorter urethra and closer to anus

73

How does cystitis usually occur?

Bacteria on external urethra migrates into bladder