Digestive System Flashcards Preview

Anatomy and Physiology > Digestive System > Flashcards

Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (64):
1

What are the functions of the digestive system? (5 - I MADE)

1. Ingestion 2. Movement 3. Absorption 4. Digestions 5. Elimination

2

What are the two types of digestion?

Mechanical and chemical

3

What are the alimentary tract organs? (6 OPESLS)

1. Oral cavity 2. Pharynx 3. Esophagus 4. Stomach 5. Small intestine 6. Large intestine

4

What are the accessory digestive organs? (4 SPLG)

1. Salivary glands 2. Pancreas 3. Liver 4. Gallbladder

5

How long is the alimentary tract?

8 Meters

6

What are the 4 layers of the alimentary tract walls? (4 - MSMS)

1. Mucosa 2. Submucosa 3. Muscular layer 4. Serosa

7

What parasympathetic nerve innervates the alimentary tract?

Vagus (10)

8

What sympathetic nerve innervates the alimentary tract?

Celiac plexus

9

What are the two types of mixing in the alimentary tract?

1. Peristalsis 2. Segmentation

10

What is the function of the oral cavity?

Mechanical digestion of food and chemical digestion of CHO via amylase.

11

What are the structures of the oral cavity? (6 Triple T, C P V)

1. Vestibule 2. Cheek/lips 3. Tongue 4. Palate 5. Teeth 6. Tonsils

12

What are the two portions of the palate?

1. Hard (anterior) 2. Soft (posterior)

13

What are the parts of the tonsils (3 - PLP)

1. Palatine 2 Lingual 3. Pharyngeal

14

What are the three pairs of salivary glands? (3 -SPS)

1. Parotid 2. Sublingual 3. Submandibular

15

What is the esophagus?

A distensible muscular tube from the pharynx to the stomach

16

What does the esophagus lie posterior to?

Trachea

17

What does the lower esophageal sphincter do?

Prevents gastric juices from getting into esophagus.

18

What is the esophageal hiatus?

A hole where the esophagus and vagus nerve pass through the diaphragm.

19

What is the function of the esophagus?

Carry food, liquids, and saliva from the mouth to the stomach.

20

Name three esophageal abnormalities.

1. Hiatal hernia 2. GERD 3. Esophageal ulcer

21

What is a hiatal hernia?

when part of your stomach pushes upward through your diaphragm.

22

What is GERD?

Gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, gastric reflux disease, or acid reflux disease is a chronic symptom of mucosal damage caused by stomach acid coming up from the stomach into the esophagus

23

Name the macroscopic structures of the stomach. (4 - CFBP)

1. Cardiac region 2. Fundic region 3. Body 4. Pyloric region

24

What is the pyloric sphincter?

the sphincter muscle of the pylorus that separates the stomach from the duodenum

25

What are rugae?

Folds in the stomach

26

What are the two curvatures

Lesser and greater

27

What is the lesser omentum?

a part of the peritoneum attached to the stomach and liver and supporting the hepatic vessels

28

What is the greater omentum?

part of the peritoneum attached to the stomach and to the colon and covering the intestines

29

What are the functions of the stomach? (4 ATMI)

1. Absorption (little) 2. Temporary food reservoir 3. Mechanical digestion (chyme) 4. Initiates chemical digestion of proteins via pepsin

30

What is chyme?

the pulpy acidic fluid that passes from the stomach to the small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partly digested food.

31

What is the microscopic structure of the stomach?

Gastric glands within mucosa

32

What are the three types of cells in gastric glands? (3-MCP)

1. mucous cells 2. chief cells 3. parietal cells

33

What is the collective term for all local stomach secretions?

Gastric juice

34

What two chemicals are needed for Pepsin?

Pepsinogen and HCL

35

What is the most important enzyme in gastric juice?

Pepsin

36

What does pepsin do?

Initiates protein digestion

37

What is responsible for gastric secretion and regulation?

Autonomic nervous system

38

What does the parasympathetic nervous system do in relation to gastric secretion/regulation

Increases gastric activity

39

What is the reflex center for vomiting?

Medula

40

What stimulates vomiting? (6 FMEHDI)

1. fever 2. motion 3. emotions 4. hormones 5. drugs 6. irritation of stomach or s.i.

41

What drugs cause vomiting?

Emetics

42

What is an ulcer?

an open sore on an external or internal surface of the body, caused by a break in the skin or mucous membrane that fails to heal.

43

Where do ulcers occur?

Stomach and small intestine

44

What causes ulcers?

Build up of stomach acid

45

What is the pancreas associated with?

Duodenum (s.i.)

46

What two organs are considered retroperitoneal?

Kidneys and pancreas

47

What secretes pancreatic juice?

Acinar cells

48

What is the endocrine function of the pancreas?

Secretion of insulin and glucagon

49

What is the exocrine function of the pancreas?

Secretes enzymes to breakdown PRO (protase), FAT (lipase), and CHO (amylase)

50

Where is the liver located?

Upper right quadrant of the stomach below diaphragm.

51

What are the functions of the liver? (3 BBL)

1. Bile secretion 2. Blood filtration 3. Lipid synthesis/metabolism

52

What is in bile? (4 WCBB)

1. Water 2. Cholesterol 3. Bile pigments 4. Bile salts

53

What do bile salts do?

Emulsify fats and absorb fat soluble vitamins and end products of fat digestion

54

What is the function of the gallbladder?

Stores and concentrates bile

55

What are the parts of the small intestine? (6 DJIVMP)

1. Duodenum 2. Jejunum 3. Ileum 4. villi 5. microvilli 6. plicae circulares

56

What is mesentery?

a fold of the peritoneum that attaches the stomach, small intestine, pancreas, spleen, and other organs to the posterior wall of the abdomen.

57

Small intestine joins the large intestine where?

Ileocecal valve (sphincter)

58

What is the function of the small intestine?

Completes chemical digestion and is primary site of nutrient absorption.

59

What is the structure of the large intestine? (4 CCRA)

1. Cecum 2. Colon 3. Rectum 4. Anal canal

60

Where is the appendix?

Off the cecum

61

What are the parts of the colon? (4 ATDS)

1. Ascending 2. Transverse 3. Descending 4. Sigmoid

62

What are the parts of the anal canal? (4 AAIE)

1. Anal columns 2. anus 3. internal anal sphincter 4. external anal sphincter

63

What are the functions of the large intestine? (4)

Formation/storage/elimination of feces 2. Mucus secretion 3. Water/electrolyte reabsorption 4. Vitamin synthesis

64

Describe the parts of the defecation reflex. (5)

1. Glottis closed 2. Abdominal muscles contract 3. diaphragm lowered with deep inspiration 4. Internal anal sphincter relaxes 5. voluntary relaxation of external anal sphincter