Flashcards in Digestive System Deck (64):
What are the functions of the digestive system? (5 - I MADE)
1. Ingestion 2. Movement 3. Absorption 4. Digestions 5. Elimination
What are the two types of digestion?
Mechanical and chemical
What are the alimentary tract organs? (6 OPESLS)
1. Oral cavity 2. Pharynx 3. Esophagus 4. Stomach 5. Small intestine 6. Large intestine
What are the accessory digestive organs? (4 SPLG)
1. Salivary glands 2. Pancreas 3. Liver 4. Gallbladder
How long is the alimentary tract?
What are the 4 layers of the alimentary tract walls? (4 - MSMS)
1. Mucosa 2. Submucosa 3. Muscular layer 4. Serosa
What parasympathetic nerve innervates the alimentary tract?
What sympathetic nerve innervates the alimentary tract?
What are the two types of mixing in the alimentary tract?
1. Peristalsis 2. Segmentation
What is the function of the oral cavity?
Mechanical digestion of food and chemical digestion of CHO via amylase.
What are the structures of the oral cavity? (6 Triple T, C P V)
1. Vestibule 2. Cheek/lips 3. Tongue 4. Palate 5. Teeth 6. Tonsils
What are the two portions of the palate?
1. Hard (anterior) 2. Soft (posterior)
What are the parts of the tonsils (3 - PLP)
1. Palatine 2 Lingual 3. Pharyngeal
What are the three pairs of salivary glands? (3 -SPS)
1. Parotid 2. Sublingual 3. Submandibular
What is the esophagus?
A distensible muscular tube from the pharynx to the stomach
What does the esophagus lie posterior to?
What does the lower esophageal sphincter do?
Prevents gastric juices from getting into esophagus.
What is the esophageal hiatus?
A hole where the esophagus and vagus nerve pass through the diaphragm.
What is the function of the esophagus?
Carry food, liquids, and saliva from the mouth to the stomach.
Name three esophageal abnormalities.
1. Hiatal hernia 2. GERD 3. Esophageal ulcer
What is a hiatal hernia?
when part of your stomach pushes upward through your diaphragm.
What is GERD?
Gastroesophageal reflux disease, gastro-oesophageal reflux disease, gastric reflux disease, or acid reflux disease is a chronic symptom of mucosal damage caused by stomach acid coming up from the stomach into the esophagus
Name the macroscopic structures of the stomach. (4 - CFBP)
1. Cardiac region 2. Fundic region 3. Body 4. Pyloric region
What is the pyloric sphincter?
the sphincter muscle of the pylorus that separates the stomach from the duodenum
What are rugae?
Folds in the stomach
What are the two curvatures
Lesser and greater
What is the lesser omentum?
a part of the peritoneum attached to the stomach and liver and supporting the hepatic vessels
What is the greater omentum?
part of the peritoneum attached to the stomach and to the colon and covering the intestines
What are the functions of the stomach? (4 ATMI)
1. Absorption (little) 2. Temporary food reservoir 3. Mechanical digestion (chyme) 4. Initiates chemical digestion of proteins via pepsin
What is chyme?
the pulpy acidic fluid that passes from the stomach to the small intestine, consisting of gastric juices and partly digested food.
What is the microscopic structure of the stomach?
Gastric glands within mucosa
What are the three types of cells in gastric glands? (3-MCP)
1. mucous cells 2. chief cells 3. parietal cells
What is the collective term for all local stomach secretions?
What two chemicals are needed for Pepsin?
Pepsinogen and HCL
What is the most important enzyme in gastric juice?
What does pepsin do?
Initiates protein digestion
What is responsible for gastric secretion and regulation?
Autonomic nervous system
What does the parasympathetic nervous system do in relation to gastric secretion/regulation
Increases gastric activity
What is the reflex center for vomiting?
What stimulates vomiting? (6 FMEHDI)
1. fever 2. motion 3. emotions 4. hormones 5. drugs 6. irritation of stomach or s.i.
What drugs cause vomiting?
What is an ulcer?
an open sore on an external or internal surface of the body, caused by a break in the skin or mucous membrane that fails to heal.
Where do ulcers occur?
Stomach and small intestine
What causes ulcers?
Build up of stomach acid
What is the pancreas associated with?
What two organs are considered retroperitoneal?
Kidneys and pancreas
What secretes pancreatic juice?
What is the endocrine function of the pancreas?
Secretion of insulin and glucagon
What is the exocrine function of the pancreas?
Secretes enzymes to breakdown PRO (protase), FAT (lipase), and CHO (amylase)
Where is the liver located?
Upper right quadrant of the stomach below diaphragm.
What are the functions of the liver? (3 BBL)
1. Bile secretion 2. Blood filtration 3. Lipid synthesis/metabolism
What is in bile? (4 WCBB)
1. Water 2. Cholesterol 3. Bile pigments 4. Bile salts
What do bile salts do?
Emulsify fats and absorb fat soluble vitamins and end products of fat digestion
What is the function of the gallbladder?
Stores and concentrates bile
What are the parts of the small intestine? (6 DJIVMP)
1. Duodenum 2. Jejunum 3. Ileum 4. villi 5. microvilli 6. plicae circulares
What is mesentery?
a fold of the peritoneum that attaches the stomach, small intestine, pancreas, spleen, and other organs to the posterior wall of the abdomen.
Small intestine joins the large intestine where?
Ileocecal valve (sphincter)
What is the function of the small intestine?
Completes chemical digestion and is primary site of nutrient absorption.
What is the structure of the large intestine? (4 CCRA)
1. Cecum 2. Colon 3. Rectum 4. Anal canal
Where is the appendix?
Off the cecum
What are the parts of the colon? (4 ATDS)
1. Ascending 2. Transverse 3. Descending 4. Sigmoid
What are the parts of the anal canal? (4 AAIE)
1. Anal columns 2. anus 3. internal anal sphincter 4. external anal sphincter
What are the functions of the large intestine? (4)
Formation/storage/elimination of feces 2. Mucus secretion 3. Water/electrolyte reabsorption 4. Vitamin synthesis